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Sanjay Asthana

Sanjay Asthana

M.D., University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Professor, Department of Medicine- Geriatrics
Section Head, Geriatrics and Gerontology; Director, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center (GRECC);
Associate Director, Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute

Estrogen, Cognition and Alzheimer's Disease

The goal of my initial research studies was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of cholinesterase inhibitors and muscarinic agonists for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Administration of the cholinergic drugs physostigmine and arecoline improved cognitive function of patients with AD. The results of these initial studies also indicated that, in general, cholinergic drugs had short half-lives and were associated with significant adverse effects.

My primary current research objective is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of estrogen and raloxifene for postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). My preliminary findings suggested that treatment with transdermal estradiol enhanced selective attention and verbal memory for postmenopausal women with AD. Furthermore, the improvement in memory was directly correlated with plasma estradiol levels. In addition to cognition, the results of my studies have characterized the neuroendocrine response to estradiol treatment for older women with AD. It is believed that some of these responses might mediate the cognition-enhancing efficacy of estrogen. The need to evaluate the therapeutic potential of raloxifene for postmenopausal women with AD is critical, as it does not cause cancers of the breast or uterus. Preliminary findings indicated that, like estrogen, raloxifene enhanced selective attention and verbal memory for postmenopausal women with AD, but these improvements were of a smaller magnitude.

Another major objective of my research program is to evaluate the efficacy of gonadal hormones for the treatment of age-associated cognitive deficits as well as those seen in patients with MCI. Preliminary findings indicated that both opposed and unopposed estrogen enhanced cognitive function for healthy older women. Additionally, results of a recent collaborative study suggested that administration of testosterone improved spatial and verbal memory for healthy older men.

Representative Publications
Johnson, S. C., Christian, B. T., Okonkwo, O. C., Oh, J. M., Harding, S., Xu, G., . . . Bendlin, B. B., . . . Asthana, S., & Sager, M. A. (2014). Amyloid burden and neural function in people at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 35(3), 576-584.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.09.028

Dysken, M. W., Sano, M., Asthana, S., Vertrees, J. E., Pallaki, M., Llorente, M., . . . Guarino, P. D. (2014). Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease The team-ad VA cooperative randomized trial. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(1), 33-44.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.282834

Dysken, M. W., Guarino, P. D., Vertrees, J. E., Asthana, S., Sano, M., Llorente, M., . . . Vatassery, G. (2014). Vitamin E and memantine in Alzheimer's disease: Clinical trial methods and baseline data. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 10(1), 36-44.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.01.014

Wharton, W., Gleason, C. E., Dowling, N. M., Carlsson, C. M., Brinton, E. A., Santoro, M. N., . . . Asthana, S. (2014). The keeps-cognitive and affective study: Baseline associations between vascular risk factors and cognition. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3233/JAD-130245

Birdsill, A. C., Carlsson, C. M., Willette, A. W., Okonkwo, O. C., Johnson, S. C., Xu, G., ... Asthana, S., Sager, M. A., & Bendlin, B. B. (2013). Low cerebral blood flow is associated with lower memory function in metabolic syndrome. Obesity, 21(7), 1313-1320.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/oby.20170

Willette, A. A., Xu, G., Johnson, S. C., Birdsill, A. C., Jonaitis, E. M., Sager, M. A., ... Asthana, S., & Bendlin, B. B (2013). Insulin resistance, brain atrophy, and cognitive performance in late middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 36(2), 443-449.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc12-0922

Wharton, W., Gleason, C. E., Miller, V. M., & Asthana, S. (2013). Rationale and design of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) and the KEEPS Cognitive and Affective sub study (KEEPS Cog). Brain Research, 1514, 12-17.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.04.011

Dowling, N. M., Gleason, C. E., Manson, J. E., Hodis, H. N., Miller, V. M., Brinton, E. A., . . . Asthana, S. (2013). Characterization of vascular disease risk in postmenopausal women and its association with cognitive performance. PLoS One, 8(7), e68741. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068741

Ries, M.L., McLaren, D.G., Bendlin, B.B., Xu, G., Rowley, H.A., Birn, R., Kastman, E.K., Sager, M.A., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2012). Medial prefrontal functional connectivity: relation to memory self-appraisal accuracy in older adults with and without memory disorders. Neuropsychologia, 50(5), 603-611.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.12.014

Okonkwo, O.C., Xu, G., Dowling, N.M., Bendlin, B.B., La Rue, A., Hermann, . . . Asthana, S., Sager, M.A. & Johnson, S.C. (2012). Family history of Alzheimer disease predicts hippocampal atrophy in healthy middle-aged adults. Neurology, 78(22), 1769-1776.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182583047

Bendlin, B.B., Carlsson, C.M., Johnson, S.C., Zetterberg, H., Blennow, K., Willette, A.A., Okonkwo, O. C., ... Puglielli, L., Asthana, S., & Sager, M.A. (2012). CSF t-tau/A 42 predicts white matter microstructure in healthy adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Public Library of Science One, 7(6), e37720.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037720

Wharton, W.L., Stein, J.H., Korcarz, C., Sachs, J., Olson, S.R., Zetterberg, H., ... Johnson, S.C., Sager, M.A., Asthana, S., Carlsson, C.M. (2012). The effects of Ramipril in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Results of a pilot clinical trial. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 1387-2877.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3233/JAD-2012-120763

Gleason, C. E., Dowling, N. M., Friedman, E., Wharton, W., & Asthana, S. M. (2012). Using predictors of hormone therapy use to model the healthy user bias: How does healthy user status influence cognitive effects of hormone therapy? Menopause, 19(5), 524-533.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/gme.0b013e318238ff2c

Baker, L.D., Asthana, S., Cholerton, B.A., Wilkinson, C.W., Plymate, S.R., Green, P.S., Merriam, G.R., Fishel, M.A., Watson, G.S., Cherrier, M.M., Kletke, M.L., Mehta, P.D., & Craft, S. (2012). Cognitive response to estradiol in postmenopausal women is modified by high cortisol. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(4), 829, e9-20.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.07.002

Willette, A.A., Xu, G., Johnson, S.C., Birdsill, A.C., Jonaitis, E.M., Sager, M.A., ... Asthana, S., & Bendlin, B.B. (2012). Insulin resistance, brain atrophy, and cognitive performance in late middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 36(2), 443-449.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc12-0922

Okonkwo, O. C., Xu, G., Oh, J. M., Dowling, N. M., Carlsson, C. M., Gallagher, C., . . . Asthana, S., Sager, M. A., & Johnson, S. C. (2012). Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebral Cortex. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhs381

Wharton, W., Gleason, C. E., Olson, S. R., Carlsson, C. M., & Asthana, S. (2012). Neurobiological underpinnings of the estrogen - mood relationship. Current Psychiatry Review, 8(3), 247-256.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2174/157340012800792957

Carlsson, C.M., Xu, G., Wen, Z., Barnet, J.H., Blazel, H.M., Chappell, Stein, J.H., Asthana, S., Sager, M.A., ... Johnson, S.C. (2011). Effects of atorvastatin on cerebral blood flow in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease: A pilot study. Current Alzheimer Research, 9(8), 990-997.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2174/156720512803251075

Johnson, S.C., La Rue, A., Hermann, B.P., Xu, G., Koscik, R.L., Jonaitis, E.M., ... Asthana, S., Green, R.C., & Sager, M.A. (2011). The effect of TOMM40 poly-t length on gray matter volume and cognition in middle-aged persons with APOE ɛ3/ɛ3 genotype. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 7(4), 456-465.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2010.11.012

Wharton, W., Baker, L. D., Gleason, C. E., Dowling, M., Barnet, J. H., Johnson, S., . . . Asthana, S. (2011). Short-term hormone therapy with transdermal estradiol improves cognition for postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's disease: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 26(3), 495-505.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3233/jad-2011-110341

Bendlin, B.B., Carlsson, C.M., Gleason, C.E., Johnson, S.C., Sodhi, A., Gallagher, C.L., Puglielli, L., Engelman, C.D., Ries, M.L., Xu, G., Wharton, W., & Asthana, S. (2010). Midlife predictors of Alzheimer's disease. Maturitas, 65(2), 131-137.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.12.014

Bendlin, B.B., Newman, L.M., Ries, M.L., Puglielli, L., Carlsson, C.M., Sager, M.A., ... Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2010). NSAIDs may protect against age-related brain atrophy. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2(35).
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2010.00035

Bendlin, B.B., Ries, M.L., Canu, E., Sodhi, A., Lazar, M., Alexander, A.L., Carlsson, C.M., Sager, M.A. Asthana, S., & Johnson, S. C. (2010). White matter is altered with parental family history of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 6(5), 394-403.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2009.11.003

Ward, M. A., Bendlin, B. B., McLaren, D. G., Hess, T. M., Gallagher, C. L., Kastman, E. K., ... Asthana, S., .. Sager, M.A., & Johnson, S. C. (2010). Low HDL cholesterol is associated with lower gray matter volume in cognitively healthy adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2(29).
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2010.00029

Lin, F., Wharton, W., Dowling, N.M., Ries, M.L., Johnson, S.C., Carlsson, C.M., Asthana, S., & Gleason, C. E. (2010). Awareness of memory abilities in community-dwelling older adults with suspected dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 30(1), 83-92.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000318752

Carlsson, C.M., Gleason, C.E., Puglielli, L., & Asthana, S. (2009). Dementia including Alzheimer's disease. In J. Halter, J. Ouslander, M. Tinnetti, S. Studenski, & S. Asthana (Eds.), Hazzard's Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Gleason, C.E., Wharton, W., Carlsson, C.M., & Asthana, S. (2009). Alternative estrogen treatment regimens and the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study-Cognitive and Affective Substudy (KEEPS-CA). In E. Hogervorset, V. Henderson, R. Gibbs, & R. Brintn R. (Eds.), Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Wharton, W., Asthana, S., & Gleason, C.E. (2009). Testosterone therapy and Alzheimer's disease: Potential for treatment and prevention, in Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. In E. Hogervorset, V. Henderson, R. Gibbs, & R. Brintn R. (Eds.), Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Wharton, W., Asthana, S., & Gleason, C.E. (2009). The use of transdermal 17 β-estradiol in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, in Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. In E. Hogervorset, V. Henderson, R. Gibbs, & R. Brintn R. (Eds.), Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Xu, G., McLaren, D.G., Ries, M.L., Fitzgerald, M.E., Bendlin, B.B., Rowley, H.A., Sager, M.A., Atwood, C.S., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2009). The influence of parental history of Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E 4 on the BOLD signal during recognition memory. Brain, 132, 383-391.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/brain/awn254

Gleason, C.E., Carlsson, C.M., Barnet, J.H., Meade, S.A., Setchell, K.D., Atwood, C.S., Johnson, S.C., Ries, M.L., & Asthana, S. (2009). A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women. Age and Ageing, 38(1), 86-93.
Click here to download this publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/ageing/afn227

Asthana, S., Brinton, R.D., Henderson, V.W., McEwen, B.S., Morrison, J.H., Schmidt, P.J. (2009). Frontiers proposal. National Institute on Aging "bench to bedside: estrogen as a case study." Age, 31(3), 199-210.
Click here to download this publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s11357-009-9087-2

Watson, G.S., Baker, L.D., Cholerton, B.A., Rhoads, K.W., Merriam, G.R., Schellenberg, G.D., Asthana, S., Cherrier, M., & Craft, S. (2009). Effects of insulin and octreotide on memory and growth hormone in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's disease, 18(3), 595-602.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3233/JAD-2009-1165

Wharton, W., Dowling, M., Khosropour, C.M., Carlsson, C., Asthana, S., & Gleason, C.E. (2009). Cognitive benefits of hormone therapy: cardiovascular factors and healthy-user bias. Maturitas, 64(3), 182-7.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.09.014

Wharton, W., Gleason, C.E., Lorenze, K.R., Markgraf, T.S., Ries, M.L., Carlsson, C.M., & Asthana, S. (2009). Potential role of estrogen in the pathobiology and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Translational Research, 1(2), 131-47.

Asenath, L.R., Hermann, B., Jones, J., Johnson, S.C., Asthana, S., & Sager, M.A. (2008). Effect of family history of Alzheimer's disease on serial position profiles. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 4(4), 285-290.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2008.03.009

Ertekin-Tanner, N., Younkin, L.H., Yager, D.M., Parfitt, F., Baker, M.C., Asthana, S., Hutton, M.L., Younkin, S.G., & Graff-Radford, N.R. (2008). Genetic elevation of plasma amyloid β levels in typical late-onset Alzheimer's disease relatives and pedigrees. Neurology, 70(8), 596-606.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000278386.00035.21

Haasl, R.J., Reza Ahmadi, M., Vadakkadath Meethal, S., Gleason, C.E., Johnson, S.C., Asthana, S., Bowen, R.L., & Atwood, C.S. (2008). A luteinizing hormone receptor intronic variant is significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease in males carrying an apolipoprotein E e4 Allele. BMC Medical Genetics, 9(1), 37.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-9-37

Hermann, B., Seidenberg, M., Sager, M., Carlsson, C.M., Gidal, B., Sheth, R., Rutecki, P., & Asthana, S. (2008). Growing old with epilepsy: the neglected issue of cognitive and brain health in aging persons with chronic epilepsy. Epilepsia, 49(5), 731-740, 2008.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01435.x

Ries, M.L., Carlsson, C.M., Rowley, H.R., Sager, M.A., Gleason, C.E., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2008). MRI characterization of brain structure and function in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(5), 920-934.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01684.x

Xu, G., Fitzgerald, M.E., Wen, Z., Fein, S., Alsop, D., Carroll, T., Ries, M., Rowley, H., Sager, M., Asthana, S., Johnson, S.C., & Carlsson, C.M. (2008). Atorvastatin therapy is associated with greater and faster cerebral hemodynamic response. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 2(2), 94-104.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s11682-007-9019-7

Carlsson, C.M., Gleason, C.E., Hess, T.M., Moreland, K.A., Blazel, H.M., Koscik, R.L., Schreiber, N.T.N., Johnson, S.C., Atwood, C.S., Puglielli, L., Hermann, B.P., McBride, P.E., Stein, J.H., Sager, M.A., & Asthana, S. (2008). Effects of simvastatin on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cognition in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimers disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 13(2), 187-97.

Trivedi, M.A., Schmitz, T.W., Ries, M.L., Hess, T.M., Fitzgerald, M.E., Atwood, C.S., Rowley, H.A., Asthana, S., Sager, M.A., & Johnson, S.C. (2008). fMRI activation during episodic encoding and metacognitive appraisal across the lifespan: Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 46(6), 1667-1678.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.11.035

Johnson, S.C., Schmitz, T.W., Asthana, S., Gluck, M.A., & Myers, C.E. (2008). Associative learning over trials activates the hippocampus in healthy elderly but not mild cognitive impairment. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15, 129-14.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/13825580601139444

Johnson, S.C., Ries, M.L., Hess, T.M., Carlsson, C.M., Gleason, C.E., Alexander, A.L., Rowley, H.A., Asthana, S., & Sager, M.A. (2007). Effect of Alzheimer disease risk on brain function during self-appraisal in healthy middle-aged adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(10), 1163-1171.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1163

Ries, M.L., Jabbar, B.M., Schmitz, T.W., Trivedi, M.A., Gleason, C.M., Rowley, H.A., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2007). Anosognosia in MCI: Relationship to activation of cortical midline structures involved in self-appraisal. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 450-61.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1017/S1355617707070488

Trivedi, M.A., Schmitz, T.W., Ries, M.L., Torgerson, B.M., Sager, M.A., Hermann, B.P., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2006). Reduced hippocampal activation during episodic encoding in middle-aged individuals at genetic risk for Alzheimer's Disease: a cross-sectional study. BMC Medicine, 4, 1.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-4-1

Gleason, C.E., Schmitz, T.W., Hess, T., Koscik, R.L., Trivedi, M.A., Ries, M.L., Carlsson, C.M., Sager, M.A., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S.C. (2006). Hormone effects on fMRI and cognitive measures of encoding: Importance of hormone preparation. Neurology, 67, 2039-204.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000247277.81400.43

Johnson, S.C., Schmitz, T.W., Trivedi, M.A., Ries, M.L., Torgerson, B.M., Carlsson, C.M., Asthana, S., Hermann, B.P., & Sager, M.A. (2006). The influence of AD family history and APOE4 on mesial temporal lobe activation. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 6069-607.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0959-06.2006

Johnson, S.C., Schmitz, T.W., Moritz, C.H., Meyerand, M.E., Rowley, H.A., Alexander, A.L., Hansen, K.W., Gleason, C.E., Carlsson, C.M., Ries, M.L., Asthana, S., Chen, K., Reiman, E.M., & Alexander, G.E. (2006). Activation of brain regions vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease: The effect of mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of Aging, 27, 1604-161.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.09.017

Gleason, C.E., Cholerton, B., Carlsson, C.M., Johnson, S.C., & Asthana, S. (2005). Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in humans: Current controversies and future directions. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 62(3), 299-312.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00018-004-4385-z

Gleason, C.E., Carlsson, C.M., Johnson, S.C., Atwood, C., & Asthana, S. (2005). Clinical pharmacology and differential cognitive efficacy of estrogen preparations. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1052, 93-115.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1196/annals.1347.007

Baker, L.D., Sambamurti, K., Craft, S., Cherrier, M., Stanczyk, F.Z., Raskind, M.A., Plymate, S.R., & Asthana, S. (2003). 17[beta]-Estradiol Reduces Plasma A[beta]40 for HRT-Naive Postmenopausal Women With Alzheimer Disease: A Preliminary Study. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry, 11(2), 239-244.

Cholerton, B., Gleason, C., Baker, L.D., & Asthana, S. (2002). Estrogen and Alzheimer's disease: The story so far. Drugs and Aging, 19(6), 405-427.

Asthana, S., Baker, L.D., Craft, S., Stanczyk, F.Z., Veith, R.C., Raskind, M.A., & Plymate, S.R. (2001). High-dose estradiol improves cognition for women with Alzheimer's disease: Results of a randomized study. Neurology, 57, 605-612.

Cherrier, M., Asthana, S., Plymate, S., Baker, L.D., Matsumoto, A.M., Peskind, E., & Raskind, M.A., et al. (2001). Testosterone supplementation improves spatial and verbal memory in healthy older men. Neurology, 57, 80-88.

Craft, S., Asthana, S., Schellenberg, G., Baker, L.D., Cherrier, M., Boyt, A.A., Martins, R.N., et al. (2000). Insulin effects on glucose metabolism, memory, and plasma amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease differ according to apolipoprotein-E genotype. Annals NY Acad. Sci., 903, 222-228.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06371.x

Asthana, S., Raffaele, K.C., Greig, N.H., Berardi, A., Schapiro, M.B., Blackman, M.R., & Soncrant, T.T. (1999). Neuroendocrine responses to intravenous infusion of physostigmine in patients with alzheimer's disease. Alz. Dis. Assoc. Disord., 13(2), 102-108.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/0306-4530(94)00084-N

Asthana, S., Craft, S., Baker, L.D., Raskind, M.A., Avery, E., Lofgreen, C., Veith, R.C., & Plymate, S.R. (1999). Cognitive and neuroendocrine response to transdermal estrogen in women with Alzheimer's disease: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24(6), 657-678.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0306-4530(99)00020-7

Craft, S., Asthana, S., Newcomer, J.W., Wilkinson, C.W., Baker, L.D., Cherrier, M., Tio-Mattis, I., et al. (1999). Enhancement of memory in Alzheimer's disease with insulin and somatostatin, but not glucose. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 56, 1135-1140.

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