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Annual
COLLOQUIUM
ON AGING
:

Event Speakers

IOA Newsletter,
AGING NEWS:

Cover of Aging News

MIDUS
Newsletters
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MIDUS Inequality newsletter cover

Training Grant-
Biology of Aging
:

Ronald Klein

Ronald Klein

M.D., New York University M.P.H., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Professor, Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences
kleinr@epi.ophth.wisc.edu
https://www.ophth.wisc.edu/directory/faculty/?person=rklein
www.epi.ophth.wisc.edu


Epidemiology of Ocular Disease Associated with Aging and Diabetes

The objectives of our research program are to determine the prevalences, incidences and rates of progression of three age-related ocular diseases which are the leading causes of legal blindness in the United States: Macular degeneration, cataract, and glaucoma, as well as diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment. These population-based data are used to provide estimates of medical care needs, counseling, rehabilitative services, projection of costs, and developing preventive strategies. In addition, the objectives of our studies are to quantitate the association between incidence and progression of these ocular diseases and visual impairment and a number of potential risk factors such as blood pressure, cigarette smoking, other systemic and ocular diseases, socioeconomic factors, and genetic factors. A third objective of our work is to study the relationship of these diseases to the development of systemic complications (such as kidney disease, amputation, and death). In addition, we have ongoing studies of the epidemiology of age-related hearing loss (with Dr. Karen Cruickshanks). We are also closely collaborating with three other population-based studies which are using our protocols to detect and measure age-related eye diseases. Findings from some of these studies have been pooled to provide new insights regarding late age-related macular degeneration.

Another facet of our research program is the development of methods to objectively quantitate ocular disease from fundus photographs. This has led to the development of a system to classify age-related maculopathy, a leading cause of legal blindness in older Americans. This and other systems have been used to measure progression of eye disease in clinical trials and epidemiological studies.

We have developed approaches to capture retinal photographs in a digitalized format and grade retinal vessel caliber using newly designed computer-assisted software. Using these new methods, data from large population-based studies have shown that retinal arteriolar narrowing is a marker of incident coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, incident hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cognitive changes, independent of other risk factors for these conditions.



Representative Publications
Chen, Y., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D., Schubert, C., Klein, R., & Klein, B. E. K. (2017). The relation between sleep disruption and cataract in a large population study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/09286586.2016.1259640

Wichmann, M. A., Cruickshanks, K. J., Carlsson, C. M., Chappell, R., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Schubert, C. R. (2016). NSAID use and incident cognitive impairment in a population-based cohort. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 30(2), 105-12.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/wad.0000000000000098

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Schubert, C. R., Pinto, A. A., Carlsson, C. M., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., & Tweed, T. S. (2016). Age-related sensory impairments and risk of cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(10), 1981-1987.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/jgs.14308

Shubert, C. R., Fischer, M. E., Pinto, A. A., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., & Cruickshanks, K. J. (2016). Odor detection thresholds in a population of older adults. Laryngoscope. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/lary.26457

Klein, B. E. K., Johnson, C. A., Meuer, S. M., Lee, K., Wahle, A., Lee, K. E., Kulkarni, A., Sonka, M., Abramoff, M. D., & Klein, R. (2016). Nerve fiber layer thickness and characteristics associated with glaucoma in community living older adults: Prelude to a screening trial? Ophthalmic Epidemiology. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/09286586.2016.1258082

Schubert, C. R., Fischer, M. E., Pinto, A. A., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Tweed, T. S., & Cruickshanks, K. J. (2016). Sensory impairments and risk of mortality in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glw036

Fisher, D. E., Jonasson, F., Klein, R., Jonsson, P. V., Eiriksdottir, G., Launer, L. J., Gudnason, V., & Cotch, M. F. (2016). Mortality in older persons with retinopathy and concomitant health conditions: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Ophthalmology, 123(7), 1570-1580.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.02.045

Choudhury, F., Varma, R., Klein, R., Gauderman, W. J., Azen, S. P., & McKean-Cowdin, R. (2016). Age-related macular degeneration and quality of life in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmology, 134(6), 683-690.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.0794

Ryan, C. M., Klein, B. E. K., Lee, K. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., & Klein, R. (2016). Associations between recent severe hypoglycemia, retinal vessel diameters, and cognition in adults with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(8), 1513-1518.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.08.010

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Pankow, J. S., Tweed, T. S., Dalton, D. S., & Paulsen, A. J. (2016). Dichotic digits test performance across the ages: Results from two large epidemiologic cohort studies. Ear and Hearing. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/AUD.0000000000000386

Millen, A. E., Sahli, M. W., Nie, J., LaMonte, M. J., Lutsey, P. L., Klein, B. E., Mares, J. A., Meyers, K. J., Andrews, C. A., & Klein, R. (2016). Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15(1), 128.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/s12933-016-0434-1

Sahli, M. W., Mares, J. A., Meyers, K. J., Klein, R., Brady, W. E., Klein, B. E., Ochs-Balcom, H. M., Donahue, R. P., & Millen, A. E. (2016). Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 23(2), 99-108.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1129426

Fischer, M.E., Schubert, C.R., Nondahl, D.M., Dalton, D.S., Huang, G.H., Keating, B.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Tweed, T.S., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2015). Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Increased Risk of Hearing Impairment. Atherosclerosis, 238(2), 344-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.031

Myers, C.E., Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S.M., Swift, M., Chandler, C.S., Huang, G.H., Gangaputra, S., Pak, J., Danis, R.P., & Klein, R. (2015). Retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in eyes without retinal abnormalities: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 159(3), 445-456.e1.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.11.025

Gangnon, R.E., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Iyengar, S.K., Sivakumaran, T.A., & Klein, R. (2015). Severity of age-related macular degeneration in 1 eye and the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration in the fellow eye. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(2), 125-132.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.4252

Chen, F., Klein, A.P., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Truitt, B.J., Klein, R., Iyengar, S.K., & Duggal, P. (2015). Exome array analysis identifies CAV1/CAV2 as a susceptibility locus for intraocular pressure. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56(1), 544-551.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-15204

Schubert, C. R., Cruickshanks, K. J., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Pinto, A. A. (2015). Inflammatory and vascular markers and olfactory impairment in older adults. Age and Ageing, 44(5), 878-882.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/ageing/afv075

Tremblay, K. L., Pinto, A., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., Levy, S., Tweed, T. S., & Cruickshanks, K. J. (2015). Self-reported hearing difficulties among adults with normal audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring study. Ear and Hearing, 36(6), e290-299.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/aud.0000000000000195

Dawes, P., Cruickshanks, K. J., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Nondahl, D. M. (2015). Hearing-aid use and long-term health outcomes: Hearing handicap, mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, physical health, and mortality. International Journal of Audiology, 54(11), 838-844.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/14992027.2015.1059503

Klein, R., Myers, C. E., Lee, K. E., Paterson, A. D., Cruickshanks, K. J., Tsai, M. Y., Gangnon, R. E., & Klein, B. E. (2015). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema determined from fundus photographs. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(9), 1054-1061.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2239

Hosseini, S. M., Boright, A. P., Sun, L., Canty, A. J., Bull, S. B., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Paterson, A. D. (2015). The association of previously reported polymorphisms for microvascular complications in a meta-analysis of diabetic retinopathy. Human Genetics, 134(2), 247-257.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00439-014-1517-2

Klein, B. E., & Klein, R. (2015). Further insight on the limits of success of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 64(2), 341-343.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db14-1447

Klein, B. E., Myers, C. E., Howard, K. P., & Klein, R. (2015). Serum lipids and proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in persons with long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus: the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(5), 503-510.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.5108

Schubert, C. R., Cruickshanks, K. J., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Pinto, A. A. (2015). Inflammatory and vascular markers and olfactory impairment in older adults. Age and Ageing, 44(5), 878-882.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/ageing/afv075

Kong, J., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Wahba, G. (2015). Backward multiple imputation estimation of the conditional lifetime expectancy function with application to censored human longevity data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 112(39), 12069-12074.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.1512237112

Fisher, D. E., Jonasson, F., Eiriksdottir, G., Sigurdsson, S., Klein, R., Launer, L. J., Gudnason, V., & Cotch, M. F. (2015). Age-related macular degeneration and mortality in community-dwelling elders: The age, gene/environment susceptibility Reykjavik study. Ophthalmology, 122(2), 382-390.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.08.006

Klein, R., Myers, C. E., Lee, K. E., Gangnon, R. E., Sivakumaran, T. A., Iyengar, S. K., & Klein, B. E. (2015). Small drusen and age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(3), 424-440.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3390/jcm4030425

Meuer, S. M., Myers, C. E., Klein, B. E., Swift, M. K., Huang, Y., Gangaputra, S., Pak, J. W., Danis, R. P., & Klein, R. (2015). The epidemiology of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities as detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: The Beaver Dam eye study. Ophthalmology, 122(4), 787-795.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.10.014

Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Dalton, D. S., Fischer, M. E., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., Nieto, F. J., Schubert, C. R., & Tweed, T. S. (2015). Smoking, central adiposity, and poor glycemic control increase risk of hearing impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(5), 918-924.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/jgs.13401

Myers, C. E., Klein, B. E., & Klein, R. (2015). Retinal thickness measured by spectral-domain OCT in eyes without retinal abnormalities [letter]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 160(1), 210-211.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2015.04.028

Kuo, J. Z., Guo, X., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Genter, P., Roll, K., Hai, Y., Goodarzi, M. O., Rotter, J. I., Chen, Y. D., & Ipp, E. (2015). Adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and diabetic retinopathy in Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 100(9), 3348-3355.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/jc.2015-1221

Klein, R., Myers, C. E., Lee, K. E., Paterson, A. D., Cruickshanks, K. J., Tsai, M. Y., Gangnon, R. E., & Klein, B. E. (2015). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema determined from fundus photographs. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(9), 1054-1061.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2239

Kim, D. H., Grodstein, F., Newman, A. B., Chaves, P. H., Odden, M. C., Klein, R., Sarnak, M. J., & Lipsitz, L. A. (2015). Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function in older adults: Cardiovascular Health Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(9), 1886-1893.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/jgs.13594

Fisher, D. E., Shrager, S., Shea, S. J., Burke, G. L., Klein, R., Wong, T. Y., Klein, B. E., & Cotch, M. F. (2015). Visual impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic participants from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis cohort. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 22(5), 321-332.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1066395

Chacko, B. G., Edwards, M. S., Sharrett, A. R., Qureshi, W. T., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., Herrington, D. M., & Soliman, E. Z. (2015). Microvasculature and incident atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Vascular Medicine, 20(5), 417-423.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/1358863x15586475

Sabanayagam, C., Lye, W. K., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Cotch, M. F., Wang, J. J., Mitchell, P., Shaw, J. E., Selvin, E., Sharrett, A. R., & Wong, T. Y. (2015). Retinal microvascular calibre and risk of diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and participant-level meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 58(11), 2476-2485.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3717-2

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Pinto, A., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., & Dalton, D. (2014). Hearing impairment and retirement. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 25(2), 164-170.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3766/jaaa.25.2.5.

Klein, B. E. K., Howard, K. P., Lee, K. E., & Klein, R. (2014). Changing incidence of lens extraction over 20 years: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 121(1), 5-9. .
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.06.006

Fischer, M.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Schubert, C.R., Pinto, A., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Pankow, J. (2014). The Association of Taste with Change in Adiposity-related Health Measures. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4(8), 1195-202.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2014.04.013

Wichmann, M.A., Cruickshanks, K.J., Carlsson, C.M., Chappell, R., Fischer, M.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Tsai, M.Y., & Schubert, C.R. (2014). Long-term systemic inflammation and cognitive impairment in a population-based cohort. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2(9), 1683-1691.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/jgs.12994

Schubert, C.R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Fischer, M.E., Huang, G., Klein, R., Tsai, M.Y., & Pinto, A. (2014). Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Atherosclerosis and 5-year Decline in Odor Identification: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study. The Journal of Gerontology. Epub ahead of print.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glu158

Fischer, M.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Pankow, J.S., Pankratz, N., Schubert, C.R., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Pinto, A. (2014). The Associations Between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) Intensity and Taste Intensities Differ by TAS2R38 Haplotype. Journal of Nutrigenetics Nutrigenomics.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000371552

Klein, R., Meyers, C.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Gangnon, R.E., Danforth, L.G., Sivakumaran, T.A., Iyengar, S.K., Twai, M.Y., & Klein, B.E. (2014). Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and the 20-year cumulative incidence of early age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmology, 132(4), 446-55.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.7671

Cruickshanks, K.J., Nondahl, D.M., Dalton, D.S., Rischer, M.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Nieto, J.F., Schubert, C.R., & Tweed, T.S. (2014). Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Advanced online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc10-2161

Howard, K.P., Klein, B.E.K, Lee, K.E., & Klein, R. (2014). Measures of body shape and adiposity as related to incidence of age-related eye diseases: Observations from the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(4), 2592-2598.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-1376

Klein, R., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2014). Relation of smoking, drinking and physical activity to changes in vision over a 20-year period: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 121(6), 1220-1228.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.01.003

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2014). Vasodilators and blood pressure lowering medications and age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 121(8), 1604-1611.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.03.005

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., Buitendijk, G.H.S., Rochtchina, E., Gao, X., de Jong, P.T., Sivakumaran, T.A., Burlutsky, G., McKean-Cowdin, R., Hofman, A., Iyengar, S.K., Lee, K.E., Stricker, B.H., Vingerling, J.R., Mitchell, P., Klein, B.E.K., Klaver, C.C.W., & (2014). Lipids, lipid genes and incident age-related macular degeneration: The Three Continent Age-Related Macular Degeneration Consortium. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 158(3), 513-524.e3.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.05.027

Hanff, T., Sharrett, A.R., Mosley, T.H., Shibata, D.K., Knopman, D., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Gottesman, R.F. (2014). Retinal microvascular abnormalities predict progression of brain microvascular disease: an Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Magnetic Resonance Imaging study. Stroke, 45(4), 1012-1017.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.004166

Klein, B.E.K., Howard, K.P., Iyengar, S.K., Sivakumaran, T.A., Meyers, K., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Klein, R. (2014). Sunlight exposure, pigmentation, and incident age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(9):5855-5861.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-14602

Myers, C.E., Klein, B.E.K., Gangnon, R.E., Sivakumaran, T.A., Iyengar, S.K., & Klein, R (2014). Cigarette smoking and the natural history of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 121(10), 1949-1955.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.04.040

Shankar, A., Peppard, P. E., Young, T., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., & Nieto, F. J. (2013). Sleep-disordered breathing and retinal microvascular diameter. Atherosclerosis, 226(1), 124-128.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.046

Jensen, R. A., Sim, X., Li, X., Cotch, M. F., Ikram, M. K., Holliday, E. G., . . . Klein, B. E. K., . . . Klein, R., . . . Wong, T. Y. (2013). Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes. PLoS One, 8(2), e54232.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054232

Boillot, A., Zoungas, S., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Klein, B., Ikram, M. K., . . . Czernichow, S. (2013). Obesity and the microvasculature: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 8(2), e52708.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052708

LeCaire, T. J., Palta, M., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., & Cruickshanks, K. J. (2013). Assessing progress in retinopathy outcomes in type 1 diabetes: Comparing findings from the Wisconsin diabetes registry Study and the Wisconsin epidemiologic Study of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care, 36(3), 631-637.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc12-0863

Verhoeven, V. J. M., Hysi, P. G., Wojciechowski, R., Fan, Q., Guggenheim, J. A., Hohn, R., . . . Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., . . . Hammond, C. J. (2013). Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia. Nature Genetics, 45(3), 314-318.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/ng.2554

Klein, R., Myers, C. E., Meuer, S. M., Gangnon, R. E., Sivakumaran, T. A., Iyengar, S. K., . . . Klein, B. E. K. (2013). Risk alleles in CFH and ARMS2 and the long-term natural history of age-related macular degeneration: The beaver dam eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmology, 131(3), 383-392.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.713

Wichmann, M. A., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Chappell, R., Klein, B. E., Klein, R., & Fischer, M. E. (2013). Changes in environmental tobacco smoke exposure: The beaver dam experience. WMJ, 112(2), 53-57.

Klein, R., Lee, K. E., Gangnon, R. E., & Klein, B. E. K. (2013). Incidence of visual impairment over a 20-year period: The beaver dam eye Study. Ophthalmology, 120(6), 1210-1219.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.11.041

Chou, C.-F., Frances Cotch, M., Vitale, S., Zhang, X., Klein, R., Friedman, D. S., Klein, B. E. K., & Saaddine, J. B. (2013). Age-related eye diseases and visual impairment among U.S. Adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45(1), 29-35.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.02.018

Howard, K. P., Klein, B. E. K., & Klein, R. (2013). Examining absolute risk of AMD in relation to cataract surgery. Ophthalmology, 120(7), 1509-1510.e1501.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.025

Hirai, F. E., Tielsch, J. M., Klein, B. E., & Klein, R. (2013). Ten-year change in self-rated quality of life in a type 1 diabetes population: Wisconsin epidemiologic Study of diabetic retinopathy. Quality of Life Research, 22(6), 1245-1253.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s11136-012-0245-0

Ong, Y. T., Wong, T. Y., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Mitchell, P., Sharrett, A. R., . . . Ikram, M. K. (2013). Hypertensive retinopathy and risk of stroke. Hypertension, 62(4), 706-711.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/hypertensionaha.113.01414

Klein, R., Li, X., Kuo, J. Z., Klein, B. E., Cotch, M. F., Wong, T. Y., . . . Rotter, J. I. (2013). Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 156(5), 1010-1020 e1011.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2013.06.004

McCanna, C. D., Myers, C. E., Lee, M., Danforth, L. G., Moore, E. L., Meuer, S. M., . . . Klein, R., & Klein, B. E. K. (2013). Variability of measurement of retinal vessel diameters. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 20(6), 392-401.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2013.848459

Nash, S. D., Cruickshanks, K. J., Huang, G.-H., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Nieto, F. J., & Tweed, T. S. (2013). Unmet hearing health care needs: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1134-1139.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301031

Zhong, W., Cruickshanks, K. J., Schubert, C. R., Carlsson, C. M., Chappell, R. J., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Acher, C. W. (2013). Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/WAD.0b013e3182949f06

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Schubert, C. R., Pinto, A., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., . . . Snyder, D. J. (2013). Taste intensity in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Laryngoscope, 123(6), 1399-1404.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/lary.23894

Nash, S. D., Cruickshanks, K. J., Zhan, W., Tsai, M. Y., Klein, R., Chappell, R., . . . Klein, B. E. K., . . . Tweed, T. S. (2013). Long-term assessment of systemic inflammation and the cumulative incidence of age-related hearing impairment in the epidemiology of hearing loss study. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. Advance online publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glt075

Nash, S. D., Cruickshanks, K. J., Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Nieto, F. J., Chappell, R., . . . Tsai, M. Y. (2013). Long-term variability of inflammatory markers and associated factors in a population-based cohort. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(8), 1269-1276.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/jgs.12382

Schubert, C. R., Cruickshanks, K. J., Fischer, M. E., Huang, G. H., Klein, R., Pankratz, N., . . . Nondahl, D. M. (2013). Odor identification and cognitive function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(7), 669-676.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/13803395.2013.809701

Schubert, C. R., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., & Fischer, M. (2013). Association of Exercise With Lower Long-term Risk of Olfactory Impairment in Older Adults. JAMA Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, 139(10), 1061-1066.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.4759

Fischer, M. E., Cruickshanks, K. J., Schubert, C. R., Pinto, A., Klein, R., Pankratz, N., . . . Huang, G.-H. (2013). Factors related to fungiform papillae density: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Chemical Senses, 38(8), 669-677.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjt033

Holliday, E. G., Smith, A. V., Cornes, B. K., Buitendijk, G. H. S., Jensen, R. A., Xueling, S., . . Klein, R., . . . Launer, L. (2013). Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: A genome-wide association study meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 8(1), 1-12.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053830

Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K. J., Myers, C. E., Sivakumaran, T. A., Iyengar, S. K., Meuer, S. M., . . . Klein, B. E. K. (2013). The relationship of atherosclerosis to the 10-year cumulative incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam studies. Ophthalmology, 120(5), 1012-1019.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.11.003

Cheng, C.-Y., Schache, M., Ikram, M. K., Young, Terri L., Guggenheim, Jeremy A., Vitart, V., . . . Klein, R., . . . Baird, P. N. (2013). Nine loci for ocular axial length identified through genome-wide association studies, including shared loci with refractive error. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 93(2), 264-277.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.016

Buitendijk, G. H. S., Rochtchina, E., Myers, C., van Duijn, C. M., Lee, K. E., Klein, B. E. K., . . . Klein, R., & Klaver, C. C. W. (2013). Prediction of age-related macular degeneration in the general population: The three continent AMD consortium. Ophthalmology, 120(12), 2644-2655.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.07.053

Klein, R., & Klein, B. E. K. (2013). The prevalence of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in aging: Current estimates. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(14), ORSF5-ORSF13.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-12789

Kawasaki, R., Xie, J., Cheung, N., Lamoureux, E. L., Klein, R., Klein, B. E. K., . . . Wong, T. Y. (2012). Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Stroke, 43(12), 3245-3251.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.673335

Gunnlaugsdottir, E., Halldorsdottir, S., Klein, R., Eiriksdottir, G., Klein, B.E.K., Benediktsson, R., ... Jonasson, F. (2012). Retinopathy in old persons with and without diabetes mellitus: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-R). Diabetologia, 55(3), 671-680.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2395-y

Nash, S.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., Ryff, C.D., ... Acher, C.W. (2012). Response to "Socioeconomic status and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults," by Drs. Karbakhsh and Tabrizchi. Preventative Medicine, 54(2):176.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.11.008

Huang, Y., Gangaputra, S., Lee, K.E., Narkar, A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S.M., & Danis, R.P. (2012). Signal quality assessment of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(4), 2133-2141.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-8755

Grassi, M.A., Tikhomirov, A., Ramalingam, S., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., ... Nicolae, D.L. (2012). Replication analysis for severe diabetic retinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(4), 2377-2381.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-8068

Schubert, C.R., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Fischer, M.E., Huang, G.H., Pankow, J.S., & Nondahl, D.M. (2012). Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Chemical Senses, 37(4), 325-34.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjr102

Kuo, J.Z., Guo, X., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cui, J., Rotter, J.I., Ipp, E., & Chen, Y.D. (2012). Systemic soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 are associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy in Hispanics. Ophthalmology, 119(5), 1041-1046.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.10.040

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Howard, K.P., & Lee, K.E. (2012). Cross-sectional associations of blood elements, clotting factors, nephropathy, and retinal outcomes in long duration type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 19(3),120-126.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2012.672619

Rein, D.B., Wittenborn, J.S., Zhang, X., Hoerger, T.J., Zhang, P., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., & Saaddine, J.B. (2012). The cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare visual acuity screening and a possible alternative Welcome to Medicare eye evaluation among persons without diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(5), 607-614.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopthalmol.2011.1921

Fischer, M.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Pinto, A.A., Schubert, C.R., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., ... Keating BJ. (2012). Intensity of salt taste and prevalence of hypertension are not related in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Chemosensory Perception, 5(2), 139-145.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s12078-012-9118-8

Hirai, F.E., Tielsch, J.M., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2012). Relationship between retinopathy severity, visual impairment and depression in persons with long-term type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmic Epidemiology,19(4), 196-203.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2012.692006

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2012). Changes in retinal vessel diameter and incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(6), 749-755.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.2560

Mayer-Davis, E.J., Davis, C.C., Saaddine, J.B., D'Agostino, R.B. Jr, Dabelea, D.M., Dolan, L.M., ... Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Bell, R.A. (2012). Diabetic retinopathy in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohort: a pilot study. Diabetic Medicine, 29(9), 1148-1152.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03591.x

Qiu, C., Cotch, M.F., Sigurdsson, G., Eiriksdottir, G., Jonasson, F., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., ... Launer LJ. (2012). Cerebral microbleeds and age-related macular degeneration: The AGES-Reykjavik Study. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(12), 2935-2937.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.01.012

Klein, B.E.K., Howard, K.P., Lee, K.E., Iyengar, S.K., Sivakumaran, T.A., & Klein, R. (2012). The relationship of cataract and cataract extraction to age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 119(8), 1628-33.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.01.050

Gangnon, R., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Iyengar, S.K., Sivakumaran, T.A., & Klein, R. (2012). Effect of the Y402H variant in the complement factor H gene on the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: results from multi-state models applied to the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(9), 1169-1176.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.693

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R., Wong, T.Y., & Klein, B.E.K. (2012). The relationship of blood pressure and other factors to serial retinal arteriolar diameter measurements over time: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(8), 1019-1027.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.560

Myers, C.E., Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R., Wong, T.Y., & Klein, B.E.K. (2012). Determinants of retinal venular diameter: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 119(12), 2563-2571.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.06.038

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Tweed, T.S., & Zhan, W. (2012). Generational differences in the reporting of tinnitus. Ear & Hearing, 33(5), 640-644.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e31825069e8

Fan, A.Z., Li, Y., Zhang, X., Klein, R., Mokdad, A.H., Saaddine, J.B., & Balluz, L. (2012). Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported vision impairment. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 19(1), 8-15.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286586.2011.591037

Dyck, P.J., Clark, V.M., Overland, C., Davies, J.L., Zafft, A.J., Pach, J.M., ... Klein, R., & Litchy, W.J. (2012). Impaired glycemia and diabetic polyneuropathy: the OC IG Survey. Diabetes Care, 35(3), 584-91.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc11-1421

Antonetti, D.A., Klein, R., & Gardner, T.W. (2012). Diabetic retinopathy. New England Journal of Medicine 366(13):1227-1239.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1056/nejmra1005073

Kim, D.H., Chaves, P.H.M., Newman, A.B., Klein, R., Sarnak, M.J., Newton, E., ... Lipsitz, L.A. (2012). Retinal microvascular signs and disability in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(3), 350-6.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.360

Ikram, M.K., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Couper, D.J., & Wong, T.Y. (2012). Age-related macular degeneration and long-term risk of stroke subtypes. Stroke, 43(6), 1681-1683.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.654632

Avery, C. L., Kucharska-Newton, A., Monda, K. L., Richey Sharrett, A., Mosley, T. H., Klein, B. E., . . . Klein, R. (2012). Impact of long-term measures of glucose and blood pressure on the retinal microvasculature. Atherosclerosis, 225(2), 412-417.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.034

Kong, J., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Lee, K. E., & Wahba, G. (2012). Using distance correlation and ss-anova to assess associations of familial relationships, lifestyle factors, diseases, and mortality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20352-20357.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.1217269109

Klein, B. E., Howard, K. P., Gangnon, R. E., Dreyer, J. O., Lee, K. E., & Klein, R. (2012). Long-term use of aspirin and age-related macular degeneration. JAMA, 308(23), 2469-2478.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.2012.65406

Harris, B., Klein, R., Jerosch-Herold, M., Hoffman, E. A., Ahmed, F. S., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Klein, B. E. K., . . . Barr, R. G. (2012). The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 7(12), e50224.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050224

Godreau, A., Lee, K. E., Klein, B. E. K., Shankar, A., Tsai, M. Y., & Klein, R. (2012). Association of oxidative stress with mortality: The beaver dam eye Study. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science, 1(3), 161-167.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.5455/oams.031212.or.024

Obasi, C. N., Cruickshanks, K. J., Nondahl, D. M., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Nieto, F. J., . . . Chappell, R. (2012). Association of biomarkers for inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress with cognitive impairment: The epidemiology of hearing loss Study. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science, 1(3), 169-173.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.5455/oams.031212.br.004

Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., & Klein, R. (2011). Refraction in adults with diabetes. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(1), 56-62.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.322

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Chou, C.F., Zhang, X., Meuer, S.M., & Saaddine, J.B. (2011). Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the US population. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(1), 75-80.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.122.4.564

Hirai, F.E., Tielsch, J.M., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2011). Ten-year change in vision-related quality of life in type 1 diabetes: the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology, 118(2), 353-358.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.022

Nash, S.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., Ryff, C.D., ... Acher, C.W. (2011). Socioeconomic status and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults. Preventative Medicine, 52(3-4), 208-212.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.12.009

Schubert, C.R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Nondahl, D.M. (2011). Olfactory impairment in older adults: 5-year incidence and risk factors. Laryngoscope, 121(4), 873-878.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/lary.21416

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Myers, C.E., & Lee, K.E. (2011). Complete blood cell count and retinal vessel diameters. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(4), 490-497.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.57

Ojaimi, E., Nguyen, T.T., Klein, R., Islam, F.M.A., Cotch, M.F., Klein, B.E.K., Wang, J.J., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Retinopathy signs in people without diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Ophthalmology, 118(4), 656-662.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.007

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Nieto, F.J., & Tweed, T.S. (2011). Tinnitus and its risk factors in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. International Journal of Audiology, 50(5), 313-20.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/14992027.2010.551220

Jonasson, F., Arnarsson, A., Eiriksdottir, G., Harris, T.B., Launer, L.J., Meuer, S.M., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Gudnason, V., & Cotch, M.F. (2011). Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in old persons: Age/Gene Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study. Ophthalmology, 118(5), 825-830.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.044

Kawasaki, R., Islam, F.M.A., Cheung, N., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., ... Wong, T.Y. (2011). Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease? Ophthalmology, 118(5), 860-865.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.040

Nash, S.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., Huang, G.H., Pankow, J.S., & Tweed, T.S. (2011). The prevalence of hearing impairment and associated risk factors: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 2011; 137(5):432-439.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archoto.2011.15

Yau, J.W.Y., Xie, J., Kawasaki, R., Kramer, H., Shlipak, M.G., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Retinal arteriolar narrowing and subsequent development of CKD Stage 3: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 58(1), 39-46.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.02.382

Klein, A.P., Duggal, P., Lee, K.E., Cheng, C.Y., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2011). Linkage analysis of quantitative refraction and refractive errors in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 52(8), 5220-5.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.10-7096

Fischer, M.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Tweed, T.S. (2011). Determinants of hearing aid acquisition in older adults. American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), 1449-1455.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2010.300078

Liew, G., Campbell, S., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Sharrett, A.R., Cotch, M.F., Wang, J.J., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Ten-year longitudinal changes in retinal microvascular lesions: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Ophthalmology, 118(8), 1612-1618.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.01.003

Sobrin, L., Green, T., Sim, X., Jensen, R.A., Tai, E.S., Tay, W.T., ... Klein, B.E.K., ... Klein, R., Daly, M.J., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Candidate gene association study for diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 52(10), 7593-7602.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-7510

Sivakumaran, T.A., Igo, R.P., Kidd, J.M., Itsara, A., Kopplin, L.J., Chen, W., ... Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nickerson, D.A., Eichler, E.E., & Iyengar, S.K. (2011). A 32 kb critical region excluding Y402H in CFH mediates risk for age-related macular degeneration. Public Library of Science One, 6(10), e25598.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025598

Zhan, W., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Huang, G.H., Pankow, J.S., Gangnon, R., & Tweed, T.S. (2011). Modifiable determinants of hearing impairment in adults. Preventative Medicine, 53(4-5), 338-42.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.08.012

Awua-Larbi, S., Wong, T.Y., Cotch, M.F., Durazo-Arvizu, R., Jacobs, D.R. Jr., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lima, J.A., Liu, K., & Kramer, H. (2011). Retinal arteriolar caliber and urine albumin excretion: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant , 26(11), 3523-3528.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr095

Zhong, W., Cruickshanks, K.J., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Nieto, F.J., Pankow, J.S., & Schubert, C.R. (2011). Carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive function in midlife: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Atherosclerosis, 219(1), 330-333.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.07.013

Shankar, A., Sabanayagam, C., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2011). Retinal microvascular changes and the risk of developing obesity: population-based cohort study. Microcirculation, 18(8), 655-662.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1549-8719.2011.00134.x

Shankar, A., Sun, L., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Muntner, P., Nieto, F.J., Tsai, M.Y., Cruickshanks, K.J. ... Klein, R. (2011). Markers of inflammation predict the long-term risk of developing chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study. Kidney International, 80(11), 1231-1238.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/ki.2011.283

Greenstein, M.B., Myers, C.E., Meuer, S.M., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., Wong, T.Y., & Klein, R. (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of choroidal nevi: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Ophthalmology, 118(12), 2468-2473.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.05.007

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Myers, C.E. (2011). Risk assessment models for late age-related macular degeneration [editorial]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 129(12), 1605-1606.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.372

Selvin, E., Ning, Y., Steffes, M.W., Bash, L.D., Klein, R., Wong, T.Y., ... Coresh, J. (2011). Glycated hemoglobin and the risk of kidney disease and retinopathy in adults with and without diabetes. Diabetes, 60(1), 298-305.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db10-1198

Moorthy, S., Cheung, N., Klein, R., Shahar, E., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Are lung disease and function related to age-related macular degeneration? American Journal of Ophthalmology, 151(2), 375-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2010.09.001

Sahakyan, K., Lee, K.E., Shankar, A., & Klein, R. (2011). Serum cystatin C and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia, 54(6), 1335-1340.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2096-6

Kim, D.H., Newman, A.B., Hajjar, I., Strotmeyer, E.S., Klein, R., Newton, E., ... Lipsitz, L.A. (2011). Retinal microvascular signs and functional loss in older persons: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke, 42(6), 1589-1595.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.605261

Butt, A.L., Lee, E.T., Klein, R., Russell, D., Ogala, G., Kingsley, R.M., & Yeh, J. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Oklahoma Indians: the Vision Keeper Study. Ophthalmology, 118(7), 1380-5.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.11.007

Cheung, C.Y., Tay, W.T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J.J., Hsu, W., Lee, M.L., ... Klein, R., Saw, S.M., & Wong, T.Y. (2011). Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular changes and blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension, 29(7), 1380-91.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/HJH.0b013e328347266c

Klein, R. (2011). Race/ethnicity and age-related macular degeneration [editorial]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 152(2), 153-154.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.016

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., Sjolie, A.K., Chaturvedi, N., Malm, A.R., Fuller, J., & Porta, M. (2011). Angiotensin receptor blockade not related to history of dry eye symptoms and treatment in the Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) [letter]. Acta Ophthalmology, 89(6), e535-e536.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.01992.x

Rein, D.B., Wittenborn, J.S., Zhang, X., Allaire, B.A., Song, M.S., Klein, R., & Saaddine, J.B., for the Vision Cost-Effectiveness Study Group. (2011). The cost-effectiveness of three screening alternatives for diabetics with no or early diabetic retinopathy. Health Services Research, 46(5), 1534-61.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2011.01263.x

Choudhury, F., Varma, R., McKean-Cowdin, R., Klein, R., Azen, S.P., & Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. (2011). Risk factors for four-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 152(3), 385-95.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.025

Oldmeadow, C., Klein, R., Buitendijk, G., Vingerling, J.R., Riveros, C., Attia, J., ... Klaver, C.C.W. (2011). Sifting the wheat from the chaff: prioritizing GWAS results by identifying consistency across analytical methods. Genetic Epidemiology, 35(8), 745-54.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/gepi.20622

Cheng, C.Y., Lee, K.E., Duggal, P., Moore, E.L., Wilson, A.F., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). Genome-wide linkage analysis of multiple metabolic factors: Evidence of genetic heterogeneity. Obesity, 18(1), 146-152.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/oby.2009.142

Cruickshanks, K.J., Nondahl, D.M., Tweed, T.S., Wiley, T.L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Chappell, R., Dalton, D.S., & Nash, S.D. (2010). Education, occupation, noise exposure history and the 10-year cumulative incidence of hearing impairment in older adults. Hearing Research, 264(1-2), 3-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2009.10.008

Fraser-Bell, S., Choudhury, F., Klein, R., Azen, S.P., Varma, R., & Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. (2010). Ocular risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). American Journal of Ophthalmology, 149(5), 735-740.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.013

Jensen, K., Lee, K.E., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). Stability of 35mm scanners as used in ophthalmologic research. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers, and Imaging, 41(1), 60-66.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3928/15428877-20091230-11

Sprague, B.L., Skinner, H.G., Trentham-Dietz, A., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2010). Serum calcium and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(1), 82-85.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.09.001

Zhan, W., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Huang, G.H., Pankow, J.S., Gangnon, R.E., & Tweed, T.S. (2010). Generational differences in the prevalence of hearing impairment in older adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(2), 260-266.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp370

Klein, R., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). The 25-year incidence of visual impairment in type 1 diabetes mellitus: The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology, 117(1), 63-70.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.051

Krantz, E.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Huang, G.H., & Nieto, F.J. (2010). Measuring refraction in adults in epidemiological studies. Archives of Ophthalmology, 128(1), 88-92.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopthalmol.2009.349

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., Klein, B.E.K., Zinman, B., Gardiner, R., Suissa, S., Sinaiko, A.R., Donnelly, S.M., Goodyer, P., Strand, T.D., & Mauer, M. (2010). Relationship of blood pressure to retinal vessel diameter in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Archives of Ophthalmology, 128(2), 198-205.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.391

Jensen, R.A., Shea, S., Ranjit, N., Diez-Roux, A.V., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., & Siscovick, D.S. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors and retinal microvascular signs: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(5), 522-531.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp414

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Wong, T.Y., Cotch, M.F., & Barr, R.G. (2010). Emphysema, airflow limitation and early age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology, 128(4), 472-77.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.25

Cheng, C.Y., Reich, D., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Patterson, N., Tandon, A., Li, M., Boerwinkle, E., Sharrett, A.R., & Kao L. (2010). Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Public Library of Science Genetics, 6(4), e1000908.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000908

Yan, Y., Klein, R., Heiss, G., Girman, C.J., Lange, E.M., Klein, B.E.K., Rose, K.M., Boerwinkle, E., Pankow, J.S., Brancati, F.L., Ballantyne, C.M., Kottgen, A., & North, K.E. (2010). The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphism may be associated with focal arteriolar narrowing in Caucasians with hypertension or without diabetes: the ARIC study. BioMed Central Endocrine Disorders, 10, 9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/1472-6823-10-9

Sahakyan, K., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Tsai, M.Y., & Klein, R. (2010). Inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers and proteinuria in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Endocrinology, 162(6), 1101-1105.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1530/EJE-10-0049

Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Nash, S.D., Krantz, E., Nieto, F.J., Huang, G.H., Pankow, J.S., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and associated risk factors. Archives of Ophthalmology, 128(6), 750-758.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.92

Sahakyan, K., Klein, B.E.K., Myers, C.E., Tsai, M.Y., & Klein, R. (2010). Novel risk factors in long-term hypertension incidence in type 1 diabetes mellitus. American Health Journal, 159(6), 1074-80.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.03.023

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Zinman, B., Gardiner, R., Suissa, S., Sinaiko, A.R., Donnelly, S.M., Goodyer, P., Strand, T.D., & Mauer, M. (2010). The relationship of retinal vessel diameter to changes in diabetic nephropathy structural variables in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 53(8), 1638-46.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/S00125-010-1763-3

Shankar, A., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Coresh, J., Muntner, P., Brazy, P.C., Cruickshanks, K.J., Nieto, F.J., Danforth, L.G., Schubert, C.R., Tsai, M.Y., & Klein, R. (2010). Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 6, 619-27.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S11269

Nguyen, T.T., Islam, A.F., Farouque, O.H.M., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., Herrington, D.M., & Wong, T.Y. (2010). Retinal vascular caliber and brachial flow-mediated dilation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Stroke, 41(7), 1343-8.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.581017

Yatsuya, H., Folsom, A.R., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Sharrett, A.R., & ARIC Study Investigators. (2010). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and risk of lacunar stroke: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Stroke, 41(7), 1349-55.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.580837

Klein, R., Blodi, B.A., Meuer, S.M., Myers, C.E., Chew, E.Y., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). The prevalence of macular telangiectasia type 2 in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 150(1), 55-62.e2.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2010.02.013

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Chappell, R., & Tweed, T.S. (2010). The ten-year incidence of tinnitus among older adults. International Journal of Audiology, 49(8), 580-585.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/14992021003753508

Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). Are individuals with diabetes seeing better? A long-term epidemiological perspective. Diabetes, 59(8), 1853-1860.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db09-1904

Zhang, X., Saaddine, J.B., Chou, C.F., Cotch, M.F., Cheng, Y.J., Geiss, L., Gregg, E., Albright, A., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2010). Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(6), 649-656.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.2010.1111

Zhong, W., Cruickshanks, K.J., Schubert, C.R., Nieto, F.J., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2010). Obesity and depression symptoms in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study population. Depression and Anxiety, 27(9), 846-51.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/da.20666

Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S.M., Lee, K., & Klein, R. (2010). Retrodots in the lens in the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort. Ophthalmology, 119(10), 1889-93.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.054

Ikram, M.K., Sim, X., Jensen, R.A., Cotch, M.F., Hewitt, A.W., Ikram, M.A., Wang, J.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., ... Wong, T.Y. (2010). Four novel loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24 and 5q14) influence the microcirculation in vivo. Public Library of Science Genetics, 6(10), e1001184.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001184

Adar, S.D., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., Wong, T.Y., Szpiro, A.A., O'Neill, M.S., Shrager, S., Barr, R.G., Siscovick, D.S., Daviglus, M.L., Sampson, P.D., & Kaufman, J.D. (2010). Air pollution and the microvasculature: a cross-sectional assessment of in vivo retinal images in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Public Library of Science Medicine, 7(11), e1000372.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001184

Kopplin, L.J., Igo, R.P., Wang, Y., Sivakumaran, T.A., Hagstrom, S.A., Peachey, N.S., Francis, P.J., Klein, M.L., SanGiovanni, J.P., Chew, E.Y., Pauer, G.J.T., Sturgill, G.M., Joshi, T., Tian, L., Xi, Q., Henning, A.K., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K. (2010). Genome-wide association identifies SKIV2L and MYRIP as protective factors for age-related macular degeneration. Genes and Immunity, 11(8), 609-21.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/gene.2010.39

Klein, R., Myers, C.E., Lee, K.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2010). 15-year cumulative incidence and associated risk factors for retinopathy in nondiabetic persons. Archives of Ophthalmology, 128(12), 1568-75.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.298

Fu, Y.P., Halman, M., Gonzalez, V.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Hayes, M.G., Cox, N., Bell, G.I., & Hanis, C.L. (2010). Identification of diabetic retinopathy genes through a genome-wide association study among Mexican-Americans from Starr County, Texas. Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 2010, pii: 861291, 9 pages.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1155/2010/861291

Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Moss, S.E., Trentham-Dietz, A., & Klein, R. (2010). Self- and registry-reported cancer in a population-based longitudinal study. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 109(5), 261-6.

Chen, W., Stambolian, D., Edwards, A.O., Branham, K., Othman, M., Jakobsdottir, J., Tosakulwong, N., Pericak-Vance, M.A., ... Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., ... Kurinij, N. (2010). Genetic variants near TIMP3 and HDL-associated loci influence susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(16), 7401-6.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.0912702107

Chew, E.Y., Sperduto, R.D., Milton, R.C., Clemons, T.E., Gensler, G.R., Bressler, S.B., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Ferris, F.L. III. (2009). Risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration after cataract surgery in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: AREDS Report 25. Ophthalmology, 116(2), 297-303.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.09.019

Chiu, C.J., Klein, R., Milton, R.C., Gensler, G., & Taylor, A. (2009). Does eating particular diets alter the risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements? British Journal of Ophthalmology, 93(9), 1241-1246.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.2008.143412

Chiu, C.J., Milton, R., Klein, R., Gensler, G., Taylor, A., & AREDS Group. (2009). Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study. Ophthalmology, 116(5), 939-946.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.025

Fischer, M.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Schubert, C.R., & Wiley, T.L. (2009). Multiple sensory impairment and quality of life. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 16(6), 346-353.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3109/09286580903312236

Hughes, A.D., Wong, T.Y., Witt, N., Evans, R., Thom, S.A., Klein, B.E.K., Chaturvedi, N., & Klein, R. (2009). Determinants of retinal microvascular architecture in normal subjects. Microcirculation, 16(2), 159-166.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/10739680802353868

Klein, A.P., Suktitipat, B., Duggal, P., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2009). Heritability analysis of spherical equivalent, axial length, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth in the beaver dam eye study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(5), 649-655.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.61

Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., & Klein, R. (2009). Parents' attained age and biomarkers of aging in their children. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49(2), 248-288.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2008.10.002

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., & Klein, B.E.K. (2009). Smoking and age-related macular degeneration - reply. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(6), 827.

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2009). Serum cystatin C, kidney disease markers, and the incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(2), 193-199.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.551

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2009). Biomarkers of aging and falling: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49(1), 22-26.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2008.04.006

Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Quandt, Z., & Wong, T.Y. (2009). Association of age, stature, and education with ocular dimensions in an older white population. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(1), 88-93.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.521

McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wang, J.J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J.R., de Jong, P.T., Witteman, J.C.M., Breteler, M.M.B., Shaw, J., & Wong, T.Y. (2009). Meta-analysis: Retinal vessel caliber and risk of coronary heart disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(6), 404-413.

McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wang, J.J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J.R., de Jong, P.T., Witteman, J.C.M., Breteler, M.M.B., Shaw, J., Zimmet, P.Z., & Wong, T.Y. (2009). Prediction of incident stroke events based on retinal vessel caliber: a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(11), 1323-1332.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp306

Qiu, C., Cotch, M.F., Sigurdsson, S., Klein, R., Jonasson, F., Klein, B.E.K., Garcia, M.E., Jonsson, P.V., Harris, T.B., Eiriksdottir, G., Kjartansson, O., van Buchem, M.A., Gudnason, V., & Launer, L.J. (2009). Microvascular lesions in the brain and retina: The age, gene/environment susceptibility-reykjavik study. Annals of Neurology, 65(5), 569-576.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/ana.21614

Raynor, L.A., Pankow, J.S., Miller, M.B., Huang, G.H., Dalton, D., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2009). Familial aggregation of age-related hearing loss in an epidemiological study of older adults. American Journal of Audiology, 18(2), 114-118.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1044/1059-0889(2009/08-0035)

Schubert, C.R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Murphy, C., Huang, G.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Nieto, F.J., Pankow, J.S., & Tweed, T.S. (2009). Olfactory impairment in adults: The Beaver Dam experience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1170, 531-536.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04102.x

Sun, C., Klein, R., & Wong, T.Y. (2009). Age-related macular degeneration and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: The cardiovascular health study. Ophthalmology, 116(10), 1913-1919.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.03.046

Wang, J.J., Rochtchina, E., Smith, W., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Joshi, T., Sivakumaran, T.A., Iyengar, S.K., & Mitchell, P. (2009). Combined effects of complement factor H genotypes, fish consumption and inflammatory markers on long-term risk for age-related macular degeneration in a cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(5), 633-641.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwn358

Jun, G., Guo, H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Wang, J.J., Mitchell, P., Miao, H., Lee, K.E., Joshi, T., Buck, M., Chugha, P., Bardenstein, D., Klein, A.P., Bailey-Wilson, J., Gong, X., Spector, T.D., Andrew, T., Hammond, C., Elston, R.C., Iyengar, S.K., & W (2009). EPHA2 is associated with age-related cortical cataract in mice and humans. Public Library of Science Genetics, 5(7), e1000584.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000584

Bravo, H.C., Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Iyengar, S.K., & Wahba, G. (2009). Examining the relative influence of familial, genetic, and environmental covariate information in flexible risk models with application to ophthalmology data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(20), 8128-8133.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.0902906106

Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2009). Commentary: Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through 2050. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(20), 2152-2153.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.2009.729

Carlsson, C.M., Nondahl, D.M., Klein, B.E., McBride, P.E., Sager, M.A., Schubert, C.R., Klein, R., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2009). Increased atherogenic lipoproteins are associated with cognitive impairment: effects of statins and subclinical atherosclerosis. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 23(1), 11-17.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181850188

Wong, T.Y., Liew, G., Tapp, R., Schmidt, M.I., Wang, J.J., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Zimmet, P., & Shaw, J. (2008). Relationship between fasting glucose and retinopathy for diagnosis of diabetes: A cross-sectional cohort study. Lancet, 371, 736-743.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60343-8

Hirai, F.E., Moss, S.E., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2008). Relationship of glycemic control, exogenous insulin, and c-peptide levels to ischemic heart disease mortality over a 16-year period in persons with older-onset diabetes: The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes Care, 31(3), 493-497.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc07-1161

Klein, B.E.K, Klein, R., & Lee, K.E. (2008). Incidence of age-related cataract over a 15-year interval. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 115, 477-482.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.11.024

Klein, R., Meuer, S.M., Knudtson, M.D., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). The epidemiology of progression of pure geographic atrophy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 146(5), 692-699.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2007.09.008

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy XXII the twenty-five-year progression of retinopathy in persons with Type 1 diabetes. Opthalmology, 115(11), 1859-1868.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.08.023

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Wong, T.Y., Cotch, M.F., Liu, K., Cheng, C.Y., Burke, G.L., Saad, M.F., Jacobs, D.R., & Sharrett, A.R. (2008). Inflammation, complement factor H, and age-related macular degeneration- The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Opthalmology, 115(10), 1742-1749.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.03.021

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). Long-term incidence of dry eye in an older population. Optometry and Vision Science, 85(8), 668-674.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/OPX.0b013e318181a947

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). Pulmonary disease and age-related macular degeneration - The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(6), 840-846.

Klein, R., Moss, S.E., Mcuer, S.M., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). The 15-year cumulative incidence of retinal vein occlusion - The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(4), 513-518.

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). Further observations on the association between smoking and the long-term incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(1), 115-121.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.126.1.115

Cheung, N., Islam, F.M., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Wong, T.Y. (2008). Plasma sphingomyelin is not associated with microvascular changes in the retina: letter. Microvasc. Res., 75(1), 9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2007.07.002

Shankar, A., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Nieto, F.J. (2008). Association between serum uric acid level and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis, 196, 749-755.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.12.029

Klein, R., Meuer, S.M., Knudtson, M.D., Iyengar, S.K., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). The epidemiology of reticular drusen. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 145(2), 317-26.

Nguyen, T.T., Wang, J.J., Sharrett, A.R., Islam, F.M.A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cotch, M.F., & Wong, T.Y. (2008). The relationship of retinal vascular caliber with diabetes and retinopathy: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care, 31(3), 544-549.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/dc07-1528

Hirai, F.E., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2008). Clinically significant macular edema and survival in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 145(4), 700-706.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2007.11.019

Edwards, A.O., Chen, D., Fridley, B.L., James, K.M., Wu, Y., Abecasis, G., Swaroop, A., Othman, M., Branham, K., Iyengar, S.K., Sivakumaran, T.A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E., & Tosakulwong, N. (2008). Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 49(4), 1652-1659. PMID: 18385087.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.09-3688

Trentham-Dietz, A., Sprague, B.L., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Cruickshanks, K.J., Fryback, D.G., & Hampton, J.M. (2008). Health-related quality of life before and after a breast cancer diagnosis. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 109(2), 379-87.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s10549-007-9653-1

Qui, C., Cotch, M.F., Sigurdsson, S., Garcia, M., Klein, R., Jonasson, F., Klein, B.E.K., Eiriksdottir, G., Harris, T.B., van Buchem, M.A., Gudnason, V., & Launer, L.J. (2008). Retinal and cerebral microvascular signs and diabetes: The Age, Gene/Environment susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Diabetes, 57(6), 1645-50.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db07-1455

Shankar, A., Li, J., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., & Klein, R. (2008). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase level and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis, 199, 102-109. PMID: 1803742.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.10.009

McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, B.E.K., Wang, J.J., Chambless, L.E., & Wong, T.Y. (2008). Risk prediction of coronary heart disease based on retinal vascular caliber [from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] Study). Am. J. Cardiol., 102(1), 58-63. PMID: 1857203.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.094

Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Reinke, J.O., Danforth, L.G., Wealti, A.M., Moore, E., & Klein, R. (2008). Supplements and age-related eye conditions - The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Opthalmology, 115(7), 1203-1208. PMID: 17997484.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.09.011

Shi, W., Wahba, G., Wright, S., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). LASSO-Patternsearch algorithm with application to ophthalmology and genomic data. Statistics and its Interface, 1, 137-153. PMID: 18852828.

Schubert, C.R., Carmichael, L.L., Murpy, C., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2008). Olfaction and the 5-year incidence of cognitive impairment in an epidemiologic study of older adults. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 56, 1517-21. PMID: 18662205.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01826.x

Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Gangnon, R.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2008). Age-period-cohort effect on the incidence of age-related macular degeneration - The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Opthalmology, 115(9), 1460-1467. PMID:1876207.

Cheung, N., Klein, R., Wang, J.J., Cotch, M.F., Islam, A.F., Klein, B.E.K., Cushman, M., & Wong, T.Y. (2008). Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 49(10), 4297-302. PMID: 18539932.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-1826

Sprague, B.L., Trentham-Dietz, A., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Lee, K.E., & Hampton, J.M. (2008). Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 17(10), 2714-22. PMID: 18843014.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0042

Liew, G., Sharrett, A.R., Wang, J.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Michell, P., & Wong, T.Y. (2008). Relative importance of systemic determinants of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 126(10), 1404-10. .
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.126.10.1404

Chang, B., Mandal, N.A., Yasumura, K., Chavali, V.R., Hawes, N.L., Khan, N.W., Hurd, R.E., Smith, R.S., Davisson, M.L., Kopplin, L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Iyengar, S.K., Heckenlively, J.R., & Ayyagari, R. (2008). Age-related retinal degeneration (arrd2) and in a novel mouse model due to a nonsense mutation in the Mdm1 gene. Hum. Mol. Genet., 17(24), 3929-41. PMID: 18805803.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddn295

Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., Brazy, P., Lee, K.E., & Klein, R. (2008). Cystatin C, other markers of kidney disease, and incidence of age-related cataract. Arch. Ophthalmol., 126(12), 1724-30.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.502

Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R. & Meuer, S.M. (2007). Association of retinal vessel caliber to optic disc and cup diameters. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 48, 63-67.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.05-1203

Duggal, P., Klein, A.P., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E., & Bailey-Wilson, J.E. (2007). Identification of novel genetic loci for intraocular pressure: A genomewide scan of the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 125(1), 74-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.125.1.74

Cheung, N., Islam, F.M., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, R., Polak, J., Cotch, M.F., Klein, B.E.K., Ouyang, P., & Wong, T.Y. (2007). Arterial compliance and retinal vascular caliber in cerebrovascular disease. Ann. Neurol., 62(6), 618-624.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1002/ana.21236

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Dalton, D.S., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Schubert, C.R., Tweed, T.S., & Wiley, T.L. (2007). The impact of tinnitus on quality of life in older adults. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 18(3), 259-268.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3766/jaaa.18.3.7

Cooper, L.S., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Bryan, R.N., Hubbard, L.D., Couper, D., Heiss, G. & Sorlie, P.D. (2006). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and MRI-defined cerebral infarction: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Stroke, 37(1), 82-86.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000195134.04355.e5

Fraser-Bell, S., Wu, J., Klein, R., Varma, R. & the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. (2006). Smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: The Los Angles Latino Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 141, 79-87.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.08.024

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., McBride, P.E., Reinke, J. & Knudtson, M.D. (2006). Medical records as sources of data on cardiovascular disease events in persons with diabetes. J. Diabetic Complications, 20(4), 224-227.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2005.06.008

Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S., Knudtson, M.D. & Klein, R. (2006). The relationship of optic disk cupping to retinal vein occlusion: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 141(5), 859-862.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Cruickshankds, K..J, & Gangnon, R.E. (2006). Changes in visual acuity in a population over a 15-year period. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 142(4), 539-549.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., Wong, T.Y., & Sharrett, A.R. (2006). Retinal vascular caliber in persons with type 2 diabetes. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. XX. Ophthalmology, 113(9), 1488-98.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.03.028

Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2006). The epidemiology of eye disease: from glycemia to genetics. Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci., 47(5), 1747-1453.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.05-0910

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2006). Age-related eye disease, visual impairment and survival: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 124(2), 243-249.

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2006). Physical activity and the 15-year cumulative incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 90, 1461-1463.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.2006.103796

Xing, C., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Jun, G., Lee, K.E., & Iyengar, S. (2006). A genome-wide linkage study of retinal vessel diameters in Beaver Dam Eye Study. Hypertension, 47(4), 797-802.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/01.HYP.0000208330.68355.72

Shankar, A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Nieto, F.J. (2006). The association of between serum uric acid level and long-term incidence of hypertension: population-based cohort study. J. Hum. Hypertens., 20(12), 937-45.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/sj.jhh.1002095

Shankar, A., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2006). The association between smoking, heavy drinking and chronic kidney disease. Am. J. Epidemiol., 164(3), 263-271.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/ebn.10.2.60

Wang, J.J., Cugati, S., Knudtson, M.D., Rochtchina, E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wong, T.Y., & Mitchell, P. (2006). Retinal arteriolar emboli and long-term mortality: Pooled data analysis from two older populations. Stroke, 37, 1833-6.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000226929.23297.75

Witt, N., Wong, T.Y., Hughes, A.D., Klein, B.E.K., Chaturvedi, N., Evan, R., McNamara, M., Thom, S.A., & Klein, R. (2006). Abnormalities of the retinal microvasculature and risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke. Hypertension, 47(5), 975-81.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/01.HYP.0000216717.72048.6c

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., & Grady, L.M. (2006). Statin use and incident nuclear cataract. JAMA, 295(23), 2752-2758.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.295.23.2752

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Knudtson, M.D. (2006). Lens opacities associated with performance-based and self-assessed visual functions. Ophthalmology, 113(8), 1257-1263.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.03.058

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Knudtson, M.D. (2006). Frailty and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology, 113(12), 2209-12.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.04.035

Haan, M.N., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Deng, Y., Blythe, L.K., Seddon, J.M., Musch, D.C., Kuller, L.H., Hyman, L.G., & Wallace, R.B. (2006). Hormone therapy and age-related macular degeneration: The Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam Study. Arch. Opthalmol., 124(7), 988-992.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., Wong, T.Y. & Tsai, M. (2006). Are inflammatory factors related to retinal vessel caliber? The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch. Opthalmol., 124(1), 87-94.

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., Knudtson, M.D. & Tsai, M.Y. (2006). Markers of inflammation, vascular endothelial dysfunction and age-related cataract. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 141, 116-122.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.08.021

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Dalton, D.S., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Tweed, T.S., & Wiley, T.L. (2006). The use of hearing protection by older adults during recreational noise exposure. Noise and Health, 8, 147-153.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.34702

Klein, R. (2005). A simplified severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 18. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123(11), 1570-1574.

Klein, R. (2005). The Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 17. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123(11), 1484-1498.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.123.11.1484

Broman, A.T., Hafiz, G., Menoz, B., Rodriguez, J., Snyder, R., Klein, R. & West, S.K. (2005). Do Hispanics have more cataract? Cataract and barriers to cataract surgery in a US Hispanic population. Proyecto VER. Arch. Opthalmol., 123, 1231-1236.

Clemons, T.E., Milton, R.C., Klein, R., Seddon, J.M. & Ferris, F.S., 3rd. (2005). Risk factors for the incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). AREDS Report No. 19. Ophthalmology, 112, 533-539.

Duggal, P., Klein, A.P., Lee, K.E., Iyengar, S.K., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2005). A genetic contribution to intraocular pressure: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 46(2), 555-560.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0729

Edwards, M.S., Wilson, D.B., Craven, T.E., Stafford, J., Fried, L.F., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Burke, G.L., & Hansen, K.J. (2005). Associations between retinal microvascular abnormalities and declining renal function in the elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 46, 214-224.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.05.005

Emanuele, N., Sacks, J., Klein, R., Reda, D., Anderson, R., Duckworth, W., & Abraira, C. (2005). Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial Group. Ethnicity, race and baseline retinopathy correlates in the Veterans Diabetes Trial. Diabetes Care, 28(8), 1954-1958.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.8.1954

Ferris, F.L., Davis, M.D., Clemons, T.E., Lee, L.Y., Chew, E.Y., Lindblad, A.S., Milton, R.C., Bressler, S.B. & Klein, R. (2005). Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Research Group. A simplified severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 18. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123(11), 1570-4.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.123.11.1570

Fisher, S.A., Abecasis, G.R., Yashar, B.M., Zareparsi, S., Swaroop, A., Iyengar, S.K., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., Majewski, J., Schultz, D.W., Klein, M.L., Seddon, J.M., Santangelo, S.L., Weeks, D.E., Conley, Y.P., Mah, T.S., Schmidt, S., & Hain (2005). Meta-analysis of genome scans of age-related macular degeneration. Hum. Mol. Genet., 14, 2257-2264.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddi230

Fraser-Bell, S., Donofrio, J., Wu, J., Klein, R., Azen, S.P., Varma, R. & the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. (2005). Sociodemographic factors and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 139, 30-38.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.08.029

Globe, D.R., Varma, R., Torres, M., Wu, J., Klein, R. & Azen, S.P. for the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. (2005). Self-reported comorbidities and visual function in a population-based study. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123, 815-821.

Hallman, D.M., Huber, J.C., Jr., Gonzalex, V.H., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Hanis, C.L. (2005). Familial aggregation of severity of diabetic retinopathy in Mexican Americans from Starr County Texas. Diabetes Care, 28, 1163-1168.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.5.1163

Hanley, A., Harris, S.B., Mamakeesick, M., Goodwin, K., Fiddler, E., Hegele, R., Spence, R., House, A., Brown, E., Schoales, B., McLaughlin, J., Klein, R. & Zinman, B. (2005). Complications of type 2 diabetes among Aboriginal Canadians: prevalence and associated risk factors. Diabetes Care, 28(8), 2054-2057.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.8.2054

Jackson, G.R., McGwin, G., Jr, Phillips, J.M., Klein, R., & Owsley, C. (2005). Impact of aging and age-related maculopathy on inactivation of the a-wave of the rod-mediated electroretinogram. Vision Research, 46(8-9), 1422-31.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0019

Klein, A.P., Duggal, P., Lee, K.E., O'Neill, J.A., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2005). Polygenic effects and cigarette smoking account for a portion of the familial aggregation of nuclear sclerosis. Am. J. Epidemiol., 161, 707-13.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwi102

Klein, B.E.K., Hubbard, L., Ferrier, N.J., Klein, R., Klein, D.J., Lee, K.L., Ewen, A., Jensen, K., & Evans, M.D. (2005). Detecting progression of nuclear sclerosis by using human grading versus semi-automated computer grading. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 46, 1155-1162.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0239

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Knudtson, M.D. (2005). Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure: longitudinal perspective. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 89(3), 284-287.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.2004.048710

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., & Lee, K.E. (2005). Frailty, morbidity, and survival. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 41, 141-149.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2005.01.002

Klein, R., Meuer, S.M., Moss, S.E., Klein, B.E.K., Nieder, M.W. & Reinke, J. (2005). Detecting age-related macular degeneration: technologies are best compared when standardized [author reply]. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123, 1157-1158.

Klein, R., Zinman, B., Gardiner, R., Suissa, S., Donnelly, S.M., Sinaiko, A.R., Kramer, M.S., Goodyer, P., Moss, S.E., Strand, T., & Mauer, M. (2005). The relationship of diabetic retinopathy to preclinical diabetic glomerulopathy lesions in type 1 diabetic patients: the Renin-Angiotensin System Study. Diabetes, 54, 527-533.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diabetes.54.2.527

Klein, R. (2005). Diabetic retinopathy. Advanced Studies in Medicine, 5(4), S270-S275.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.26.2007.S99

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., Wong, T.Y., Shankar, A. & Tsai, M.Y. (2005). Systemic markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and age-related maculopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 140, 35-44.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.01.051

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K. & Knudtson, M.D. (2005). Frailty and age-related macular degeneration. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 140, 129-131.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.12.049

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Shankar. A. (2005). Associations with weight loss and subsequent mortality risk. Ann. Epidemiol., 15(7), 483-491.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2004.12.003

Lee, S.C., Lee, E.T., Wang, Y., Klein, R., Kingsley, R.M., & Warn, A. (2005). Computer classification of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123, 759-764.

Leung, H., Wang, J.J., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., & Mitchell, P. (2005). Dyslipidaemia and microvascular disease in the retina. Eye, 19(8), 861-868.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/sj.eye.6701668

Mitchell, P., Leung, H., Wang, J.J., Rochtchina, E., Lee, A.J., Wong, T.Y., & Klein, R. (2005). Retinal vessel diameter and open-angle glaucoma: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 112, 245-250.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.08.015

Mitchell, P., Wang, J.J., Klein, R., Wong, T.Y., Smith, W., Leeder, S., & Jakobsen, K. (2005). Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke and stroke mortality. Neurology, 65(7), 1005-1009.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000179177.15900.ca

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2005). Ankle-brachial index and the prevalence of age-related maculopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 140(6), 1159-1161.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.07.029

Munoz, B., Klein, R., Rodriguez, J., Snyder, R., & West, S.K. (2005). Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a population-based sample of hispanic people in Arizona: Proyecto VER. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123, 1575-1580.

Nondahl, D.M., Klein, B.E., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Tweed, T.S., & Wiley, T.L. (2005). Factors predicting severity of tinnitus: A population-based assessment. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 16, 196; author reply 197.

Puent, B.D., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Nondahl, D.M. (2005). Factors related to vision care in an older adult cohort. Optom. Vis. Sci., 82, 612-616.

Sjolie, A.K., Porta, M., Parving, H.H., Bilous, R., & Klein, R. for the The DIRECT Programme Study Group. (2005). The Diabetic Retinopathy Candasartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme: Baseline characteristics. J. Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst., 6, 25-32.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3317/jraas.2005.003

Torre, P.3rd, Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E., Klein, R., & Nondahl, D.M. (2005). The association between cardiovascular disease and cochlear function in older adults. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 48(2), 473-81.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2005/032)

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Knudtson, M.D., & Hubbard, L.D. (2005). Medication use and retinal vessel diameters. Am. J. Opthalmol., 139(2), 373-375.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.08.008

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Rosamond, W., Folsom, A.R., Sharrett, A.R., Couper, D.J., & Hubbard, L.D. (2005). Retinopathy and the risk of congestive heart failure. JAMA, 293(1), 63-69.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.293.1.63

Wong, T.Y., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Hubbard, L.D. (2005). Estrogen replacement therapy and retinal vascular caliber. Ophthalmology, 112, 553-558.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.11.026

Wong, T.Y., Marino Laren, E.K., Klein, R., Mitchell, P., Couper, D.J., Klein, B.E.K., Hubbard, L.D., Siscovick, D.S., & Sharrett, A.R. (2005). Cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities & Cardiovascular Health Studies. Ophthalmology, 112, 540-547.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.10.039

Wong, T.Y., Shankar, A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Hubbard, L.D. (2005). Retinal arteriolar narrowing hypertension and subsequent risk of diabetes mellitus. Arch. Int. Med., 165, 1060-1065.

Zhou, H., Isaman, D.J., Messinger, S., Brown, M.B., Klein, R., Brandle, M., & Herman, W.H. (2005). A computer simulation model of diabetes progression, quality of life, and cost. Diabetes Care, 28(12), 2856-63.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.12.2856

Jun, G., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Fox, K., Millard, C., Humphrey, J., Russo, K., Lee, K.E., Elston, R.C. & Iyengar, S.K. (2005). Genome-wide analyses demonstrate novel loci that predispose to drusen formation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 46, 3081-3088.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-1360

Klein, A.P., Duggal, P., Lee, K.E., Klein, R., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., & Klein, B.E.K. (2005). Support for polygenic influences on ocular refractive error. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 46, 442-446.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0794

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., McBride, P., Moss, S.E., Prineas, R., & Reinke, J. (2005). Electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons with long duration type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28(1), 145-147.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.1.145

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Lee, K.E. (2005). Age-related eye disease, quality of life, and functional activity. Arch. Ophthalmol., 123, 807-814.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/01.ieb.0000181127.17048.30

Iyengar, S.K., Song, D., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Schick, J.H., Humphrey, J., Millard, C., Liptak, R., Russo, K., Jun, G., Lee, K.E., Fijal, B., & Elston, R.C. (2004). Dissection of genomewide-scan data in extended families reveals a major locus and oligogenic susceptibility for age-related macular degeneration. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 74, 20-39.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1086/380912

Wong, T.Y., Shankar, A., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). Retinal vessel diameters and the incidence of gross proteinuria and renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 53, 179-184.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.1.179

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Lee, K.E. (2004). Heritability of risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 45, 59-62.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.03-0516

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., Wong, T.Y., Hubbard, L., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Palta, M. (2004). The relation of retinal vessel caliber to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. XIX: The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol., 122(1), 76-83.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.122.1.76

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Duncan, B.B., Couper, D.J., Klein, B.E.K., Hubbard, L.D., & Nieto, F.J. (2004). A prospective study of retinal arteriolar diameters and risk of hypertension. Ann. Intern. Med., 140, 248-255.

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). Incidence of dry eye in an older population. Arch. Ophthalmol., 122, 369-373.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S.C., & Wong, T.Y. (2004). The relation of retinal microvascular characteristics to age-related eye diseases. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 137, 435-444.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2003.10.020

Roy, M.S., Klein, R., OColmain, B.J., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., & Kempen, J.H. (2004). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adult type 1 diabetic persons in the United States. Arch. Ophthalmol., 122, 546-551.

Tomany, S.C., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Knudtson, M.D. (2004). Sunlight and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 122(5), 750-757.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.122.5.750

Shankar, A., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2004). The relationship between white blood cell count and incident hypertension. Am. J. Hypertension, 17, 233-239.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2003.11.005

van Leeuwn, R., Tomany, S.C., Wang, J.J., Klein, R., Mitchell, P., Hofman, A., Klein, B.E.K., Vingerling, J.R., Cumming, R.G., de Jong, P.T.V.M. (2004). Is medication use associated with the incidence of early age-related maculopathy? Pooled findings from 3 continents. Ophthalmology, 111, 1169-1175.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.10.024

Fraser-Bell, S., Ying-Lai, M., Klein, R., & Varma, R. (2004). Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 45(6), 1732-1736.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.03-1295

Wong, T.Y., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S.M., & Hubbard, L.D. (2004). Computer-assisted measurement of retinal vessel diameters in the Beaver Dam Eye Study: Methodology, correlation between eyes and effect of refractive error. Ophthalmology, 111, 1183-1190.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.09.039

Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). Do statins prevent age-related macular degeneration? (Editorial). Am. J. Ophthalmol., 137, 747-749.

Wong, T.Y., Knudtson, M.D., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). A prospective study of retinal arteriolar narrowing and mortality. Am. J. Epidemiol., 159, 819-825.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwh119

Tomany, S.C., Wang, J.J., Van leeuwen, R., Klein, R., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J.R., Klein, B.E.K., Smith, W., deJong, P.T.V.M. (2004). Risk factors for incident age-related macular degeneration. Pooled Findings from 3 continents. Ophthalmology, 111, 1280-1287.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.11.010

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Lee, K.E., Meuer, S.M., Tomany, S.C. (2004). Location of lesions associated with age-related maculopathy over a 10-year period: the Beaver Dam Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 45, 2135-2142.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.03-1085

Wong, T.Y., Shankar, A., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Hubbard, L.D. (2004). Prospective cohort study of retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension. Brit. Med. J., 329, 79-82.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bmj.38124.682523.55

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Knudtson, M.D. (2004). Lifestyle correlates of tooth loss in an adult Midwestern population. J. Public Health Dent., 64, 145-150.

Wong, T.Y., Coresh, J., Klein, R., Muntner, P., Couper, D.J., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, B.E.K., Heiss, G., Hubbard, L.D., & Duncan, B.B. (2004). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and renal dysfunction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 15, 2469-2476.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/01.ASN.0000136133.28194.E4

Zhang, H.H., Wahba, G., Lin, Y., Voelker, M., Ferris, M., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). Variable selection and model building via likelihood basis pursuit. J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 99, 659-672.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1198/016214504000000593

Iyengar, S.K., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Gyungah, J., Schick, J., Millard, C., Liptak, R., Russo, K., Lee, K., & Elson, R. (2004). Identification of a major locus for age-related cortical cataract on chromosome 6p12-q12 in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 14485-14490.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.0400778101

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., McBride, P.E., Cruickshanks, K.J., Palta, M., Knudtson, M.D., Moss, S.E., & Reinke, J.O. (2004). Cardiovascular disease, mortality, and retinal microvascular characteristics in type 1 diabetes Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Arch. Intern. Med., 164(17), 1917-1924.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archinte.164.17.1917

Wong, T.Y., Duncan, B.B., Golden, S.H., Klein, R., Couper, D.J., Klein, B.E.K., Hubbard, L.D., Sharrett, A.R., & Schmidt, M.I. (2004). Associations between the metabolic syndrome and retinal microvascular signs: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 45, 2949-2954.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0069

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Hall, E.R., Lee, K.L., & Jensen, K. (2004). The comparability of estimates of retroilluminated lens opacities as judged from film-based and digital imaging. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 138, 668-670.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.04.068

Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2004). Author Reply to McGwin and Owesley's letter to editor re: statins and age-related macular degeneration. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 138(4), 688-689.

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Dalton, D.S., Schubert, C.R., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Tweed, T.S. (2004). Serum cotinine and incident hearing loss: A case/control study. Arch. Otolaryngol.--Head & Neck Surg., 130(11), 1260-1264.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archotol.130.11.1260

Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D. (2004). Familial aggregation of retinal vessel caliber in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 45(11), 3929-3933.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0462

Klein, R., Meuer, S.M., Moss, S.E., Klein, B.E.K., Neider, M.N., & Reinke, J. (2004). Detection of age-related macular degeneration using a nonmydriatic digital camera and a standard film fundus camera. Arch. Ophthalmol., 122, 1642-1646.

Knudtson, M.D., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Wong, T.Y., Hubbard, L.D., Lee, K.E., Meuer, S.M., & Bulla, C.P. (2004). Variation associated with measurement of retinal vessel diameters at different points in the pulse cycle. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 88, 57-61.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.88.1.57

Millen, A.E., Klein, R., Folsom, A.R., Stevens, J., Palta, M., & Mares, J.A. (2004). Relationships of dietary vitamins C and E to diabetic retinopathy in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 865-73.

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Danforth, L.G., Reinke, J.O., & Adler, A.M. (2003). Associations of selected medications and visual function: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Br. J. of Ophthalmol., 87, 403-408.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.87.4.403

Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2003). Associations of visual function with physical outcomes and limitations five years later in an older population: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 110, 644-650.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01935-8

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Marino, E.K., Kuller, L.H., Furberg, C., Burke, G.L., Hubbard, L.D. (2003). Early age-related maculopathy in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Ophthalmology, 110, 25-33.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01565-8

Wong, T.Y., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Knudtson, M., & Lee, K.E. (2003). Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. Ophthalmology, 110, 211-217.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01260-5

Huang, G.H., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Tomany, S.C. (2003). Birth cohort effect on prevalence of age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 157, 721-729.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwg011

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S.C., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2003). The association of cardiovascular disease with the long-term incidence of age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 110(4), 636-643.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01448-3

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Duncan, B.B., Nieto, F.J., Klein, B.E.K., Couper, D.J., Hubbard, L.D., & Sharrett, A.R. (2003). Racial differences in the prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy. Hypertension, 41, 1086-1091.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/01.HYP.0000064181.63546.53

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., & Moore, E.L. (2003). Do multiple families alter estimates of risk for age-related cataract in a population based study? The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol., 10, 97-106.

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Nieto, F.J., Klein, B.E.K., Sharrett, A.R., Meuer, S.M., Hubbard, L.D., Tielsch, J.M. (2003). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and ten-year cardiovascular mortality a population-based case-control study. Ophthalmology, 110, 933-940.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00084-8

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S.C., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2003). Association of emphysema, gout, and inflammatory markers with the long-term incidence of age-related maculopathy. Arch. Ophthalmol., 121(5), 674-678.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.121.5.674

Schick, J.H., Iyengar, S.K., Klein, B.E., Klein, R., Reading, K., Liptak, R., Millard, C., Lee, K.E., Tomany, S.C., Moore, E.L., Fijal, B.A., Elston, R.C. (2003). A whole-genome screen of a quantitative trait of age-related maculopathy in sibships from the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 72, 1412-1424.

Millen, A.E., Gruber, M., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Palta, M., & Mares, J.A. (2003). Relations of serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to diabetic retinopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am. J. Epidemiol., 158, 225-33.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwg116

Tomany, S.C., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2003). The relationship between iris color, hair color, and skin sun sensitivity and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 110, 1526-33.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00539-6

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S.C., Danforth, L.G., & Cruickshanks, K.J. (2003). Relation of statin use to the 5-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy. Arch. Ophthalmol., 121(8), 1151-1155.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.121.8.1151

Wong, T.Y., Mosley, T.H., Jr., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Sharrett, A.R., Couper, D.J., Hubbard, L.D. (2003). Retinal microvascular changes and MRI signs of cerebral atrophy in healthy, middle-aged people. Neurology, 61, 806-811.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1212/01.WNL.0000086372.05488.8

Cruickshanks, K.J., Tweed, T.S., Wiley, T.L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Chappell, R., Nondahl, D.M., & Dalton, D.S. (2003). The 5-year incidence and progression of hearing loss: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 129(10), 1041-46.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archotol.129.10.1041

Knudtson, M.D., Lee, K.E., Hubbard, L.D., Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2003). Revised formulas for summarizing retinal vessel diameters. Curr. Eye Res., 27, 143-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1076/ceyr.27.3.143.16049

Wang, J.J., Klein, R., Smith, W., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S., & Mitchell, P. (2003). Cataract surgery and the 5-year incidence of late-stage age-related maculopathy: Pooled findings from the Beaver Dam and Blue Mountains Eye Studies. Ophthalmology, 110, 1960-1967.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00816-9

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., Wong, T.Y., Hubbard, H., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Palta, M. (2003). Retinal vascular abnormalities in persons with type 1 diabetes: The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy XVIII. Ophthalmology, 110, 2118-2125.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00863-7

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Wong, T.Y. (2003). Retinal vascular changes and 20-year incidence of lower extremity amputations in a cohort with diabetes. Arch. Intern. Med., 163, 2505-2510.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., & Meuer, S.M. (2003). Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 121, 1446-1451.

Dalton, D.S., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Wiley, T.L., & Nondahl, D.M. (2003). The impact of hearing loss on quality of life in older adults. Gerontologist, 43(5), 661-8.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geront/43.5.661

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Lee, K.E., & Meuer, S.M. (2003). Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the 10-year incidence of age-related cataracts. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 136, 506-512.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0002-9394(03)00290-3

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Meuer, S.M., & Hubbard, L.D. (2003). Retinal vessel diameters and their associations with age and blood pressure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 44, 4644-4650.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1167/iovs.03-0079

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., & Meuer, S.M. (2003). Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc., 101, 173-182.

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Knudtson, M.D., & Lee, K.E. (2003). Relationship of measures of frailty to visual function. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc., 101, 191-199.

Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (2003). Familial aggregation of components of the multiple metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart and Offspring Cohorts GAW Problem 1. BMC Genet., 4(Suppl. I), S94.

Bressler, N.M., Bressler, S.B., Congdon, N.G., Ferris, F.L., III, Friedman, D.S., Klein, R., Lindblad, A.S., Milton, R.C., & Seddon, J.M. (2003). Potential public health impact of Age-Related Eye Disease Study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch. Ophthalmol., 121, 1621-1624.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/archopht.121.11.1621

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Klein, R., Klein, B.E., & Tweed, T.S. (2003). Comment on tinnitus in older adults from the Blue Mountains Study by Sindhusade et al and comparison with tinnitus data from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Int. J. Audiol., 43, 60.

Millen, A.E., Gruber, M., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wright, J.D., Palta, M., & Mares, J.A. (2003). Relationships of serum ascorbic acid and -Tocopherol to diabetic retinopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am. J. Epidemiol, 158, 225-233.

Nondahl, D.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wiley, T.L., Tweed, T.S., & Pasic, T.R. (2002). Prevalence and 5- year incidence of tinnitus among older adults: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. J. Am. Acad. Audiol., 13, 323-331.

Murphy, C., Schubert, C.R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Nondahl, D.M. (2002). Prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults: Results of an epidemiological study. JAMA, 288(18), 2307-2312.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.288.18.2307

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Duncan, B.B., Couper, D.J., Tielsch, J.M., Klein, B.E.K., & Hubbard, L.D. (2002). Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of cornary heart disease in men and women: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. JAMA, 287, 1153-1160.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.287.9.1153

Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2002). Blood pressure control and diabetic retinopathy. Brit. J. Ophthalmol., 86(4), 365-367.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1136/bjo.86.4.365

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Schmidt, M.I., Pankow, J.S., Couper, D.J., Klein, B.E.K., Hubbard, L.D., Duncan, B.B., for the ARIC investigators. (2002). Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged persons. JAMA, 287, 2528-2533.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.287.19.2528

Wong, T.Y., & Klein, R. (2002). Retinal arteriolar emboli: epidemiology and risk of stroke. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 13, 142-146.

Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, B.E.K., Moss, S.E., Folsom, A.R., Wong, T.Y., Brancati, F.L., Hubbard, L.D., & Couper, D. (2002). The association of atherosclerosis, vascular risk factors, and retinopathy in adults with diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Ophthalmology, 109, 1225-1234.

Lee, K.E., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Wong, T.Y. (2002). Changes in refraction over 10 years in an adult population. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 43, 2566-2571.

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Manolio, T.A., Hubbard, L.D., Marino, E.K., Kuller, L., Burke, G., Tracy, R.P., Polak, J.F., Gottdiener, J.S., & Siscovick, D.S. (2002). Retinal microvascular abnormalities in older persons: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 8, 1007-13.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01931-0

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Tomany, S.C., Meuer, S.M., & Huang, G-H. (2002). The ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 109, 1767-79.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.07.017

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Lee, K.C. (2002). Incidence of age-related cataract over a 10-year interval. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 109, 2052-57.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01249-6

Mares-Perlman, J.A., Fisher, A.L., Klein, R., Palta, M., Block, G., Millen, A.E., & Wright, J.D. (2001). Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Diet and Serum and Their Relation to Age-related Maculopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J. Epidemiol., (5), 424-432.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/153.5.424

Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Nondahl, D.M. (2001). Sunlight and the 5-yr incidence of early age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol., 119(2), 246-250.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10-1001/pubs.Ophthalmol.-ISSN-0003-9950-119-2-eeb00005

Dalton, D.S., Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Tweed, T.S. (2001). Association of leisure time noise exposure and hearing loss. Audiology, 40, 1-9.

Mares-Perlman, J.A., Fisher, A.I., Klein, R., Palta, M., Block, G., Millen, A.E., & Wright, J.D. (2001). Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am. J. Epidemiol, 153(5), 424-432.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/153.5.424

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Lee, K.E. (2000). Reproductive exposures, incident age-related cataracts and age-related maculopathy in women. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 130, 322-326.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00474-8

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Moss, S.E. (2000). Lens thickness and five-year cumulative incidence of cataracts. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol., 7, 243-48.

Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Klein, B.E.K., Chambless, .LE., Cooper, L.S., Hubbard, L.D., & Evans, G. (2000). Are retinal arteriolar abnormalities related to atherosclerosis? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 20, 1644-1650.

Moss, S.E., Klein, R., & Klein, B.E.K. (2000). Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch. Ophthalmol., 118, 1264-1268.

Wong, T.Y., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., & Tomany, S.C. (2000). Refractive errors and 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 43, 2869-2873.

Mares-Perlman, J.A., Lyle, B.J., Klein, R., Fisher, M.S., Brady, W.E., VandenLangenberg, G.M., Jillian, N., Trabulsi, J.N., & Palti, M. (2000). Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based study. Arch. Ophthalmol., 118(11), 1556-63.

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Moss, S.E. (1999). Mortality and hormone related exposures in women with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2, 248-252.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diacare.22.2.248

Klein, R. (1999). Guidelines for screening for diabetic retinopathy revisited [Editorial]. Ophthalmic Epidemiol., 6, 1-3.

Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Jensen, S.C., Mares-Perlman, J.A., Cruickshanks, K.J., & Palta, M. (1999). Age-related maculopathy in a multiracial United States population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Ophthalmology, 106, 1056-1065.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90255-5

Mares-Perlman, J.A., & Klein, R. (1999). Diet and age-related macular degeneration. In A. Taylor (Ed.), Nutritional and environmental influences on the eye. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Lyle, B.J., Mares-Perlman, J.A., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Greger, J.L. (1999). Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 149, 801-809.

Lyle, B.J., Mares-Perlman, J.A., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Palta, M., Bowen, P.E., & Greger, J.L. (1999). Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and incidence of age-related nuclear cataract. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(2), 272-277.

Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Wiley, T.L., Nondahl, D.M., & Tweed, T.S. (1998). Cigarette smoking and hearing loss: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. JAMA, 279(21), 1715-1719.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.279.21.1715

Popelka, M.M., Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Tweed, T.S., Klein, B.E.K., & Klein, R. (1998). Low prevalence of hearing aid use among older adults with hearing loss: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 46, 1075-1078.

Cruickshanks, K.J., Wiley, T.L., Tweed, T.S., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., Mares- Perlman, J.A., & Nondahl, D.M. (1998). Prevalence of hearing loss in older adults in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 148(9), 879-886.

Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Lee, K.E. (1998). Renal function abnormalities and incident cataract after a five-year interval: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Curr. Eye Res., 17, 720-725.

Lyle, B.J., Mares-Perlman, J.A., Klein, B.E.K., Klein, R., & Greger, J.L. (1998). Supplement users differ from nonusers in demographic, lifestyle, dietary and health characteristics. J. Nutrition, 128, 2355-2362.

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PH: 608.262.1818
FAX: 608.263.6211