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Training Grant-
Biology of Aging

Alan Attie

Alan D. Attie

Ph.D., University of California-San Diego
Professor, Department of Biochemistry

For most recent research description and publications, see:

Genetics of Diabetes, beta-cell biology

Our laboratory studies genetic and biochemical processes underlying metabolic diseases, especially obesity and diabetes.

The obesity and diabetes epidemics

The obesity epidemic is evoking a parallel epidemic in metabolic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, fatty liver, neurological diseases, and kidney failure. Genetic factors contribute to these diseases and obesity acts as a stressor that elicits phenotypes that might otherwise be silent. Our laboratory uses genetics to identify novel causal and responsive genes leading to metabolic diseases.


Diabetes results from an absolute or a relative insulin deficiency. Pancreatic beta-cells sense blood glucose and respond by secreting insulin. Insulin lowers blood glucose by promoting its clearance from the circulation and by inhibiting gluconeogenesis. In type 1 diabetes, there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of the cells that produce insulin, the pancreatic beta-cells. However, in type 2 diabetes, there is an increased requirement for insulin, caused by a dampened response to the hormone, coupled with a failure to meet this increased requirement. We study the mechanisms by which beta-cells sense glucose and trigger insulin secretion.


Genetic Pipeline. Our projects come from genes we identify in our genetic screens. Our past screens were conducted on F2 populations derived from 2-way crosses of inbred mouse strains. At present, we are conducting a screen of an outbred population derived from an 8-way cross. This population has as much genetic diversity as the entire human population.

Sorcs1 and insulin trafficking. We identified the Sorcs1 gene as causal for a serum insulin phenotype. We knocked out the gene and discovered that deficiency of Sorcs1 in obese mice results in a loss of the insulin containing vesicles in pancreatic beta-cells. We are investigating the function of this and related proteins in beta-cell lines.

Gene causal networks and diabetes. By combining global gene expression profiling and genetics, we are able to construct causal networks linking specific genes with diabetes phenotypes. One of those genes is the transcription factor NFATc2. We are studying its regulation in relation to beta-cell function and diabetes.

Representative Publications
Tian, J., Keller, M.P., Broman, A.T., Kendziorski, C., Yandell, B.S., Attie, A.D., & Broman, K.W. (2016). The Dissection of Expression Quantitative Trait Locus Hotspots. Genetics, 202(4), 1563-1574.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.115.183624

Shang, J., Li, J., Keller, M.P., Hohmeier, H.E., Wang, Y., Feng, Y., Zhou, H.H., Shen, X., Rabaglia, M., Soni, M., Attie, A.D., Newgard, C.B., Thornberry, N.A., Howard, A.D., & Zhou, Y. (2015). Induction of miR-132 and miR-212 expression by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in rodent and human pancreatic beta-cells. Molecular Endocrinology, 29(9), 1243-1253.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/me.2014-1335#sthash.a0buhY16.dpuf

Broman, K.W., Keller, M.P., Broman, A.T., Kendziorski, C., Yandell, B.S., Sen, S., & Attie, A.D. (2015). Identification and correction of sample mix-ups in expression genetic data: A case study. G3, 201, 1253-62.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.115.179432

Savas, J.N., Ribeiro, L.F., Wierda, K.D., Wright, R., DeNardo-Wilke, L.A., Rice, H.C., Chamma, I., Wang, Y.Z., Zemla, R., Lavallee-Adam, M., Vennekens, K.M., O'Sullivan, M.L., Antonios, J.K., Thoumine, O., Attie, A.D., Yates, Jr., Ghosh, A., & De Wit, J. (2015). The sorting receptor SorCS1 regulates trafficking of neurexin and AMPA receptors. Neuron 87(4), 764-780.
View publication via DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.08.007

Tian, J., Keller, M.P., Oler, A.T., Rabaglia, M.E., Schueler, K.L., Stapleton, D.S., Broman, A.T., Zhao, W., Kendziorski, C., Yandell, B.S., Hagenbuch, B., Broman, K.W., & Attie, A.D. (2015). Identification of the bile acid transporter Slco1a6 as a candidate gene that broadly affects gene expression in mouse pancreatic islets. Genetics, 201(3), 1253-1262.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.115.179432

Attie, A.D. (2015). How do reducing equivalents increase insulin secretion? Journal of Clinical Investigation, 125(10), 3754-3756.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1172/JCI84011

Shortreed, M.R., Wenger, C.D., Frey, B.L., Sheynkman, G.M., Scalf, M., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., & Smith, L.M. (2015). Global identification of protein post-translational modifications in a single-pass database search. Journal of Proteome Research, 14(11), 4714-4720.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00599

T., Gatti, D.M., Srivastava, A., Snyder, E.M., Raghupathy, N., Simecek, P., Svenson, K.L., Dotu, I., Chuang, J.H., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., Braun, R.E., & Churchill, G.A. (2015). Genetic architectures of quantitative variation in RNA editing pathways. Genetics, 202(2), 787-98.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.115.179481

Morgan, A.P., Fu, C.P., Kao, C.Y., Welsh, C.E., Didion, J.P., Yadgary, L., ... Attie, A.D., ... & Pardo-Manual de Villena, F. (2015). The Mouse Universal Genotyping Array: From Substrains to Subspecies. G3, 6(2), 263-79.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/g3.115.022087

Lai, L., Leone, T.C., Keller, M.P., Martin, O.J., Broman, A.T., Nigro, J., Kapoor, K., Koves, T.R., Stevens, R., Ilkayeva, O.R., Vega, R.B., Attie, A.D., Muoio, D.M., & Kelly, D.P. (2014). Energy Metabolic Re-Programming in the Hypertrophied and Early Stage Failing Heart: A Multi-systems Approach. Circulation. Heart. Failure., 7(6), 1022-31.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001469

Munger, S.C., Raghupathy, N., Choi, K., Simons, A.K., Gatti, D.M., Hinerfeld, D.A., Svenson, K.L., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., Hibbs, M.A., Graber, J.H., Chesler, E.J., & Churchill, G.A. (2014). RNA-Seq Alignment to Individualized Genomes Improves Transcript Abundance Estimates in Multiparent Populations. Genetics, 198(1), 59-73.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.165886/-/DC1

Johnson, L.M., Barrick, S., Hager, M.V., McFedries, A., Homan, E.A., Rabaglia, M.E., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., Saghatelian, A., Bisello, A., & Gellman, S.H. (2014). A Potent alpha/beta-Peptide Analogue of GLP-1 with Prolonged Action in Vivo. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136(37), 12848-51 PMID 25191938.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1021/ja507168t

Kebede, M.A., Oler, A.T., Gregg, T., Balloon, A.J., Johnson, A., Mitok, K., ... Attie, A.D. (2014). SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed beta cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124(10), 4240-56.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1172/JCI74072

Kebede, M.A., & Attie, A.D. (2014). Insights into obesity and diabetes at the intersection of mouse and human genetics. Trends in Endocrinology Metabolism, 25(10), 493-501.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2014.06.006

Bhatnagar, S., Soni, M.S., Wrighton, L.S., Hebert, A.S., Zhou, A.S., Paul, P.K., Gregg, T., Rabaglia, M.E., Keller, M.P., Coon, J.J., & Attie, A.D. (2014). Phosphorylation and Degradation of Tomosyn-2 De-represses Insulin Secretion. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(36), 25276-86.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.575985

Soni, M.S., Rabaglia, M.E., Bhatnagar, S., Shang, J., Ilkayeva, O., Mynatt, R., Zhou, Y.P., Schadt, E.E., Thornberry, N.A., Muoio, D.M., Keller, M.P., & Attie, A.D. (2014). Downregulation of Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes, 63(11), 3805-14.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db13-1677

Martin, O.J., Lai, L., Soundarapandian, M.M., Leone, T.C., Zorzano, A., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., Muoio, D.M., & Kelly, D.P. (2014). A role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1 in the control of mitochondrial dynamics during postnatal cardiac growth. Circulation Research, 114(4), 626-36.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302562

Ulbrich, A., Merrill, A.E., Hebert, A.S., Westphall, M.S., Keller, M.P., Attie, A.D., & Coon, J.J. (2014). Neutron-encoded protein quantification by peptide carbamylation. Journal of American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 25, 6-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s13361-013-0765-z

Kimple, M.E., Keller, M.P., Rabaglia, M.R., Pasker, R.L., Truchan, N.A., Brar, H.K., and Attie, A.D. (2013). The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3, is induced in diabetic islets and negatively regulates glucose- and hormone-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes, 62(6), 1904-1912.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db12-0769

Neto, E. C., Broman, A. T., Keller, M. P., Attie, A. D., Zhang, B., Zhu, J., & Yandell, B. S. (2013). Modeling causality for pairs of phenotypes in system genetics. Genetics, 193(3),1003-1013.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.112.147124

Lane, R. F., Steele, J. W., Cai, D., Ehrlich, M. E., Attie, A. D., & Gandy, S. (2013). Protein sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of SorCS1 control generation of Alzheimer's amyloid-? peptide. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(16), 7099-7107.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5270-12.2013

Haas, M. E., Attie, A. D., & Biddinger, S. B. (2013). The regulation of apoB metabolism by insulin. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabaolism, 24(8), 391-397.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2013.04.001

Still, A. J., Floyd, B. J., Hebert, A. S., Bingman, C. A., Carson, J. J., Gunderson, D. R., . . . Attie, A. D., Coon, J. J., & Pagliarini, D. J. (2013). Quantification of mitochondrial acetylation dynamics highlights prominent sites of metabolic regulation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288, 26209-26219.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.483396

O'Halloran, T. V., Kebede, M., Phillips, S. J., & Attie, A. D. (2013). Zinc, insulin and the liver: a menage a trois. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123(10), 4136-4139.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1172/JCI72325

Wang, C.Y., Stapleton, D.S., Schueler, K.L., Rabaglia, M.E., Oler, A.T., Keller, M.P., ... Attie, A.D. (2012). Tsc2, a positional candidate gene underlying a quantitative trait locus for hepatic steatosis. Journal of Lipid Research, 53(8), 1493-1501.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1194/jlr.M025239

Grimsrud, P.A., Carson, J.J., Hubler, S.L., Hebert, A., Bailey, D.J., Stapleton, D.S., ... Attie, A.D., Coon, J.J., & Pagliarini, D.J. (2012). A quantitative map of the mitochondrial phosphoproteome reveals post-translational control of ketogenesis. Cell Metabolism, 16(5), 672-83.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.10.004

Tu, Z., Keller, M. P., Zhang, C., Rabaglia, M. E., Greenwalt, D. M., Yang, X., . . . Attie, A. D., Schadt, E. E., & Zhu, J. (2012). Integrative analysis of a cross-loci regulation network identifies App as a gene regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. PLoS Genetics, 8(12), e1003107.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003107

eto E. C., Keller, M. P., Broman., A., Attie, A. D., Jansen, R. C., Broman, K. W., & Yandell, B. S. (2012). Quantile-based permutation thresholds for QTL hotspots. Genetics, 191(4), 1355-1365.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.112.139451

Casellas, J., Gularte, R. J., Farber, C. R., Varona, L., Mehrabian, M., Schadt, E. E., Lusis, A. J., Attie, A. D., Yandell, B. S., & Medrano, J. F. (2012). Genome scans for transmission ratio distortion regions in mice. Genetics. 191(1), 247-59.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.111.135988

Raines, S.M., Richards, O.C., Schneider, L.R., Schueler, K.L., Rabaglia, M.E., Oler, A.T., ... Attie, A.D. (2011). Loss of PDGF-B activity increases hepatic vascular permeability and enhances insulin sensitivity. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism. 301(3), E517-526.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00241.2011

Bhatnagar, S., Oler, A.T., Rabaglia, M.E., Stapleton, D.S., Schueler, K.L., Truchan, N.A., ... Attie, A.D. (2011). Positional cloning of a type 2 diabetes quantitative trait locus; tomosyn-2, a negative regulator of insulin secretion. Public Library of Science Genetics 7(10), e1002323.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002323

Lavine, J.A., Raess, P.W., Davis, D.B., Rabaglia, M.E., Presley, M.P., Keller, M.P....Attie, A.D. (2010). Contamination with E1A-positive wild-type adenovirus accounts for species-specific stimulation of islet cell proliferation by CCK: A cautionary note. Molecular Endocrinology, 24(2), 464-7.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/me.2009-0384

Lavine, J.A., Raess, P.W., Stapleton, D.S., Rabaglia, M.E., Suhonen, J.I., Schueler, K.L....Davis, D.B., Hellerstein, M.K., Attie, A.D. (2010). Cholecystokinin is upregulated in obese mouse islets and expands beta-cell mass by increasing beta-cell survival. Endocrinology, 151(8), 3577-88.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/en.2010-0233

Richards, O.C., Raines, S.M., & Attie, A.D. (2010). The role of blood vessels, endothelial cells, and vascular pericytes in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action. Endocrine Reviews, 31, 343-63.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0035

Newgard, C.B., & Attie, A.D. (2010). Getting biologic about the genetics of diabetes. Nature Medicine, 16, 388-391.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/nm0410-388

Keller, M.P., & Attie, A.D. (2010). Physiological insights gained from gene expression analysis in obesity and diabetes. Annual Review of Nutrition, 30, 341-364.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104747

Richards, O.C., Raines, S.M., & Attie, A.D. (2010). The role of blood vessels, endothelial cells, and vascular pericytes in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action. Endocrine Reviews. 31(3), 343-363.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0035

Newgard, C.B., & Attie, A.D. (2010). Getting biological about the genetics of diabetes. Nature Medicine, 16, 388-391.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/nm0410-388

Lavine, J.A., & Attie, A.D. (2010). Gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of beta-cell mass. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1212, 41-58.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05802.x

Davis, D.B., Lavine, J.A., Suhonen, J.I., Krautkramer, K.A., Rabaglia, M.E., Sperger, J.M. ...Attie, A.D. (2010). FoxM1 is up-regulated by obesity and stimulates beta-cell proliferation. Molecular Endocrinology, 24(9), 1822-1834.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/me.2010-0082

Chaibub Neto, E., Ferrara, C.T., Attie, A.D., Yandell, B.S. (2008). Inferring causal phenotype networks from segregating populations. Genetics, 179(2), 1089-1100.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.107.085167

Blasiole, D.A., Oler, A.T., & Attie, A.D. (2008). Regulation of ApoB secretion by the low density lipoprotein receptor requires exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and interaction with ApoE or ApoB. J. Biol. Chem., 283(17), 11374-11381.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1074/jbc.M710457200

Ferrara, C.T., Wang, P., Neto, E.C., Stevens, R.D., Bain, J.R., Wenner, B.R., Ilkayeva, O.R., Keller, M.P., Blasiole, D.A., Kendziorski, C., Yandell, B.S., Newgard, C.B., & Attie, A.D. (2008). Genetic networks of liver metabolism revealed by integration of metabolic and transcriptional profiling. PLoS Genet., 4(3), e10000034.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000034

Flowers, M.T., Keller, M..P, Choi, Y., Lan, H., Kendziorski, C., Ntambi, J.M., & Attie, A.D. (2008). Liver gene expression analysis reveals endoplasmic reticulum stress and metabolic dysfunction in SCD1-deficient mice fed a very low-fat diet. Physiol. Genomics, 33(3), 361-372.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.​1152/​physiolgenomics.​00139.​2007

Oler, A.T., & Attie, A.D. (2008). A rapid, microplate SNP genotype assay for the leptinob allele. J. Lipid Res. 49(5), 1126-1129.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1194/jlr.D800002-JLR200

Chen, J., Hui, S.T., Couto, M.F., Mungrue, I.N., Davis, D.B., Attie, A.D., Lusis, A.J., Davis, R.A.,Shalev, A. (2008). Thioredoxin-interacting protein deficiency induces Akt/Bcl-xL signaling and pancreatic beta-cell mass and protects against diabetes. FASEB Journal, 22(10), 3581-94.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1096/fj.08-111690

Keller, M.P., Choi, Y.J., Wang, P., Davis, D.B., Rabaglia, M.E., Oler, A.T., ... Attie, A.D. (2008). A gene expression network model of type 2 diabetes links cell cycle regulation in islets with diabetes susceptibility. Genome Research, 18(5), 706-16.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1101/gr.074914.107

Blasiole, D.A., Davis, R.A., & Attie, A.D. (2007). The physiological and molecular regulation of lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Mol. Biosyst., 3(9), 608-19.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1039/B700706J

Nassoury, N., Blasiole, D., Oler, A.T., Hamelin, J., Prat, A., Attie, A.D., & Seidah, N.G. (2007). The cellular trafficking of the secretory proprotein convertase PCSK9 and its dependence on the LDLR. Traffic, 8, 718-732.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00562.x

Goodarzi, M.O., Lehman, D.M., Taylor, K.D., Guo, X., Cui, J., Quinones, J.J., Clee, S.M., Hsueh, W.A., Yang, H., Attie, A.D., Stern, M.P., & Rotter, J.I. (2007). SORCS1: A novel human type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene suggested by the mouse. Diabetes, 56, 1922-1929.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/db06-1677

Clee, S.M. , & Attie, A.D. (2007). The genetic landscape of type 2 diabetes in mice. Endocrine Reviews, 28(1), 48-83.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/er.2006-0035

Lan, H. Chen, M., Byers, J.E., Yandell, B.S., Stapelton, D.S., Mata, C.M., Mui, E.T., Flowers, M.T., Scheuler, K.L., Manly, K.F., Williams, R.W., Kendziorski, C.M., & Attie, A.D. (2006). Combined expression trait correlations and expression quantatative trait locus mapping. PLoS Genetics, 2, 52-61.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020006

Rabagia, M.E., Gray-Keller, M.P., & Attie, A.D. (2005). a-Ketoisocaproate-induced Hypersecretion of Insulin by Islets from Diabetes-susceptible Mice: A Role for a‑ketoglutarate as a direct insulin secretagogue. Am. J. Physiol. 289, E218-E224.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00573.2004

Jin, C., Lan, H., Attie, A.D., Bulutuglo, D., Churchill, G.A., & Yandell, B.S. (2004). Selective phenotyping for increased efficiency in mapping studies. Genetics, 168, 2285-93.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1534/genetics.104.027524

Stoehr, J.P., Byers, J.E., Clee, S.M., Lan, H., Boronenkov, I., Schueler, K.M., Yandell, B.S., & Attie, A.D. (2004). Identification of major quantitative trait loci controlling body weight variation in ob/ob mice. Diabetes 53, 245-249.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.1.245

Lan, H., Rabaglia, M.E., Stoehr, J.P., Nadler, S.T., Schueler, K.L., Zou, F., Yandell, B.S., & Attie, A.D. (2003). Gene expression profiles of non-diabetic and diabetic obese mice suggest a role of hepatic lipogenic capacity in diabetes susceptibility. Diabetes, 52(3), 688-700.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2337/diabetes.52.3.688

Gillian-Daniel, D.L., Bates, P.W., Tebon, A., & Attie, A.D.Gillian-Daniel, D.L., Bates, P.W., Tebon, A., & Attie, A.D. (2002). Endoplasmic reticulum localization of the LDL receptor mediates pre-secretory degradation of apolipoprotein B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 43, 4337-4342.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.072557199

Ntambi, J.M., Miyazaki, M., Stoehr, J.P., Lan, H., Kendziorski, C.M., Yandell, B.S., Cohen, P., Friedman, J.M., & Attie, A.D. (2002). Loss of Stearoyl CoA Desaturase-1 Function protects mice against adiposity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 11482-11486.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.132384699

Attie, A.D., Krauss, R.M., Gray-Keller, M.P., Brownlie, A., Miyazaki, M., Kastelein, J.J., Lusis, A.J., Stalenhoef, A.F.H., Stoehr, J.P., Hayden, M.R., & Ntambi, J.M. (2002). Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia. J. Lipid Res., 43, 1899 - 1907.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1194/jlr.M200189-JLR200

Attie, A.D., Hamon, Y., Brooks-Wilson, A.R., Gray-Keller, M.P., Rigot, V., Tebon, A., Zhang, L.-H., Mulligan, J., Singaraja, R.R., Bitgood, J.J., Cook, M.E., Kastelein, J.J.P., Chimini, G., & Hayden, M.R. (2002). Identification and functional analysis of a naturally occurring E89K mutation in the ABCA1 gene of the WHAM chicken. J. Lipid Res., 43, 1610-1617.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1194/jlr.M200223-JLR200

Lin, Y., Nadler, S.T., Lan, H., Attie, A.D., & Yandel, B.S. (2002). Adaptive gene picking with microarray data: Detecting important low abundance signals. In G. Parmigiani, E.S. Garrett, R.A. Irizarry, & S.L. Zeger (Eds.), The analysis of gene expression data: Methods and software. Springer-Verlag.

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