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Carol D. Ryff

Carol D. Ryff

Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University
Professor, Department of Psychology
Director, Institute on Aging
cryff@wisc.edu
http://psych.wisc.edu/index.php/people/faculty/carol-ryff


Understanding Positive Aging as an Integrated Biopsychosocial Process

My research addresses aging as a multidisciplinary challenge that requires integration of many levels of analysis: sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial resources, life stresses, health behaviors and practices, neurobiological risk and protective factors, and health outcomes (mental and physical). We study the pathways through which these influences come together in longitudinal investigations, involving local, state, and national samples.

Well-Being. As a psychologist, I approach optimal aging in terms what key ingredients comprise healthy mental functioning. Our studies focus on six dimensions of well-being: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. We have shown that these qualities are contoured by sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture) as well as by the events and experiences that individuals confront (both unexpected life stresses and planned, normative transitions). We have also contrasted the above aspects of "eudaimonic" well-being with "hedonic" formulations, which emphasize happiness, positive affect, and life satisfaction. Religion and spirituality have most recently become part of our studies of well-being.

Positive Health. We define positive health as the neurophysiological substrates of flourishing. The key issue is how psychosocial well-being is linked with biology. Do such things as good quality relationships and purpose in life convey protection against adverse health outcomes, and if so, what are the intervening mechanisms? We pursue these questions by connecting assessments of well-being, broadly defined, to diverse biomarkers (cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, immune) and to neural circuitry. Such work demands collaborative, multidisciplinary teams, whose objective is to understand the biopsychosocial processes that contribute to good mind/body health and high life quality.

Resilience. The theme of resilience, which we define as the maintenance or recovery of health and well-being in the face of cumulative adversity, is prominent in our studies. Of interest is how people sustain positive outlooks and functional capacities as life challenges multiply, a question of considerable import in old age. We explore potential protective factors on multiple levels (biological, psychological, social). A primary forum for investigating resilience is MIDUS, a national survey of adults and the elderly, which thanks to NIA support, has become a longitudinal study with extensive psychosocial and biomarker assessments.



Representative Publications
Ryff, C. D., Boylan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Kitayama, S., ... Park, J. (In Press). Adult development in Japan and the U.S.: Comparing theories and findings about growth, maturity, and well-being. In L. Jensen (Ed.), Oxford handbook of human development and culture: An interdisciplinary perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lapate, R. C., Van Reekum, C. M., Schaefer, S. M., Greischar, L. L., Norris, C. J., Bachhuber, D. R. W., ... Ryff, C. D., Davidson, R. J. (2014). Prolonged marital stress is associated with reduced maintenance of the response to positive stimuli. Psychophysiology. Advanced online publication.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/psyp.12203

Song, J., Mailick, M. R., Ryff, C. D., Coe, C. L., Greenberg, J. S., & Hong, J. (2014). Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: Moderating influence of positive affect. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(2), 262-272.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/1359105312468193

Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2014). Anger, adiposity, and glucose control in nonidabetic adults: Findings from MIDUS II. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 37-46.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s10865-012-9460-y

Kan, C., Kawakami, N., Karasawa, M., Love, G. D., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., Ryff, C. D., Kitayama, S., Curhan, K. B., & Markus, H. R. (2014). Psychological resources as mediators of the association between social class and health: Comparative findings from Japan and the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(1), 53-65.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s12529-012-9249-y

Ryff, C. D., Love, G. D., Miyamoto, Y., Markus, H. R., Curhan, K. B., Kitayama, S., ... Karasawa, M. (2014). Culture and the promotion of well-being in East and West: Understanding varieties of attunement to the surrounding context. In G. A. Fava & C. Ruini (Eds.), Increasing psychological well-being in clinical and education settings: Interventions and cultural contexts. New York: Springer.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-8669-0

Ryff, C. D. (2014). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 10-28.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000353263

Boehm, J. K., Williams, D. R., Rimm, E., Ryff, C. D., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2013). The association between optimism and serum antioxidants in the Midlife in the United States Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(1), 2-10.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31827c08a9

Park, J., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K., Markus, H. R., Kawakami, N., Miyamoto, Y., Love, G. D., Coe, C. L., Ryff, C. D. (2013). Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 226-235.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/1359105312439731

Fuller-Rowell, T. E., Love, G. D., Williams, D. R., McKinely, P. S., Sloan, R. P., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Race differences in age trends of autonomic nervous system functioning. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(5), 839-862.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/0898264313491427

Swann, J. R., Spagou, K., Lewis, M., Nicholson, J. K., Glei, D. A., Seeman, T. E., Coe, C. L., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D.. . . Holmes, E. (2013). Microbial-mammalian co-metabolites dominate the age-associated urinary metabolic phenotype in Taiwanese and American Populations Journal of Proteome Research, 12(7), 3166-3180.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1021/pr4000152

Ryff, C.D. (2013). Eudaimonic well-being and health: Mapping consequences of self-realization In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia. (pp. 77-98). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/14092-005

Kimhy, D., Crowley, O. V., McKinley, P. S., Burg, M. M., Lachman, M. E., Tun, P. A., . . . Ryff, C. D. , Seeman, T. E., Sloan, R. P. (2013). The association of cardiac vagal control and executive functioning- Findings from the MIDUS study Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(5), 628-635.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.01.018

Boehm, J. K., Williams, D. R., Rimm, E. B., Ryff, C., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2013). Relation between optimism and lipids in midlife. American Journal of Cardiology, 111(10), 1425-1431.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.01.292

Tsenkova, V., Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. (2013). Stress eating and health: Findings from MIDUS, a national Study of U.S. Adults. Appetite, 69, 151-155.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.05.020

Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). Varieties of anger and the inverse link between education and inflammation: Toward an integrative framework. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(6), 566-574.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31829683bd

Slopen, N., Kontos, E. Z., Ryff, C. D., Ayanian, J. Z., Albert, M. A., & Williams, D. R. (2013). Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States. Cancer Causes & Control, 24(10), 1849-63.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s10552-013-0262-5

Boylan, J. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2013). High anger expression exacerbates the relationship between age and metabolic syndrome. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. Advance online publication.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbt092

Heller, A. S., van Reekum, C. M., Schaefer, S. M., Lapate, R. C., Radler, B. T., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Sustained ventral striatal activity predicts eudaimonic well-being and cortisol output. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2191-2200.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/0956797613490744

Miyamoto, Y., Boylan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Curhan, K. B., Levine, C. S., Markus, H. R., ...Ryff, C. D. (2013). Negative emotions predict elevated interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 34, 79-85.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.173

Park, J., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Coe, C. L., Miyamoto, Y., Karasawa, M., ...Ryff, C. D. (2013). Social status and anger expression: The cultural moderation hypothesis. Emotion, 13(6), 1122-1131.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0034273

Schaefer, S. M., Morozink Boylan, J., van Reekum, C. M., Lapate, R. C., Norris, C. J., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery from negative stimuli. PLoS One, 8(11), e80329.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080329

Ryff, C. D. (2013). Life span and life course approaches to dermatological disease. In M. D. Linder & A. B. Kimball (Eds.), Current problems in dermatology: Dermatological diseases and cumulative life course impairment (Vol. 44, pp. 1-16).
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000350007

Turiano, N. A., Pitzer, L., Armour, C., Karlamangla, A., Ryff, C. D., & Mroczek, D. K. (2012). Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: Findings from a national study of Americans (MIDUS). The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(1), 4-12.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbr072

Tsenkova, V. K., Albert, M. A., Georgiades, A., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Trait anxiety and glucose metabolism in people without diabetes: Vulnerabilities among Black women. Diabetic Medicine, 29(6), 803-806.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03534.x

Costanzo, E. S., Stawski, R. S., Ryff, C. D., Coe, C. L., & Almeida, D. M. (2012). Cancer survivors' responses to daily stressors: Implications for quality of life. Health Psychology, 31(3), 360-370.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0027018

Glei, D. A., Goldman, N., Ryff, C. D., Lin, Y.-H., & Weinstein, M. (2012). Social relationships and inflammatory markers: An analysis of Taiwan and the U.S. Social Science & Medicine, 74(12), 1891-1899.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.020

Friedman, E. M., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Living well with medical comorbidities: A biopsychosocial perspective. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(5), 535-544.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbr152

Javaras, K. N., Schaefer, S. M., van Reekum, C. M., Lapate, R. C., Greischar, L. L., Bachhuber, D. R., Love, G. D., Ryff, C. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2012). Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion. Emotion, 12(5), 875-881.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0028105

Nash, S.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., Ryff, C.D., ... Acher, C.W. (2012). Response to "Socioeconomic status and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults," by Drs. Karbakhsh and Tabrizchi. Preventative Medicine, 54(2):176.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.11.008

Ryff, C. D., Friedman, E., Fuller-Rowell, T., Love, G., Morozink, J., Radler, B., Tsenkova, V., Miyamoto, Y. (2012). Varieties of resilience in MIDUS. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(11), 792-806.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00462.x

Slopen, N., Dutra, L. M., Williams, D. R., Mujahid, M. S., Lewis, T. T., Bennett, G. G., Ryff, C. D., Albert, M. A. (2012). Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 14(10), 1161-1169.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/ntr/nts011

Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2012). Synergistic effect of neuroticism and body mass index on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81(5), 327-328.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000337413

Ryff, C. D. (2012). Varieties of resilience and their biological underpinnings. European Health Psychologist, 14(3), 70-75.
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Ryff, C. D., Friedman, E. M., Morozink, J. A., & Tsenkova, V. (2012). Chapter 4: Psychological resilience in adulthood and later life: Implications for health. In J. Hayslip, Bert & G. Smith (Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics: Emerging perspectives on resilience in adulthood and later life (Vol. 32, pp. 73-92).
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1891/0198-8794.32.73

Ryff, C. D. (2012). Existential well-being and health. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning (2nd ed., pp. 233-248). New York: Routledge.

Miyamoto, Y., & Ryff, C.D. (2011). Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health. Cognition & Emotion, 25(1), 22-39.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1080/02699931003612114

Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S. S., Love, G. D., Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2011). Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: A comparison between Japan and the US International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 73(1), 73-98.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2190/AG.73.1.d

Coe, C. L., Love, G. D., Karasawa, M., Kawakami, N., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., . . . Ryff, C. D. (2011). Population differences in proinflammatory biology: Japanese have healthier profiles than Americans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(3), 494-502.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2010.11.013

Crowley, O. V., McKinley, P. S., Burg, M. M., Schwartz, J. E., Ryff, C. D., Weinstein, M., . . . Sloan, R. P. (2011). The interactive effect of change in perceived stress and trait anxiety on vagal recovery from cognitive challenge. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(3), 225-232.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.09.002

Nash, S.D., Cruickshanks, K.J., Klein, R., Klein, B.E.K., Nieto, F.J., Ryff, C.D., ... Acher, C.W. (2011). Socioeconomic status and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults. Preventative Medicine, 52(3-4), 208-212.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.12.009

Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(3), 307-331.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/0898264309358617

Love, G. D., Seeman, T. E., Weinstein, M., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Bioindicators in the MIDUS national study: Protocol, measures, sample and comparative context. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(8), 1059-1080.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/0898264310374355

Manderscheid, R.W., Ryff, C.D., Freeman, E.J., McKnight-Eily, L.R., Dhingra, S., Strine, T.W. (2010). Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness. Preventing Chronic Disease, 7(1), A19.
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Slopen, N., Lewis, T.T., Gruenewald, T.L., Mujahid, M.S., Ryff, C.D., Albert, M.A., & Williams, D.R. (2010). Early life adversity and inflammation in African Americans and Ahites in the Midlife in the United States Survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42(7), 694-701.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181e9c16f

Phelan, C.H., Love, G.D., Ryff, C.D., Brown, R.L., & Heidrich, S.M. (2010). Psychosocial predictors of changing sleep patterns in aging women: A multiple pathway approach. Psychology and Aging, 25(4), 858-866.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0019622

Charles, S.T., Luong, G., Almeida, D.M., Ryff, C.D., Sturm, M., & Love, G. (2010). Fewer ups and downs: Daily stressors mediate age differences in negative affect. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 65B, 279-286.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbq002

Shcheslavskaya, O.V., Burg, M.M., McKinley, P.S., Schwartz, J.E., Gerin, W., Ryff, C.D., et al. (2010). Heart rate recovery after cognitive challenge is preserved with age. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 128-133.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c94ca0

Morozink, J. A., Friedman, E. M., Coe, C. L., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of interleukin-6 in the MIDUS national sample. Health Psychology, 29(6), 626-635.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0021360

Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K. B., Ryff, C. D., & Markus, H. R. (2010). Independence and interdependence predict health and wellbeing: Divergent patterns in the United States and Japan. Frontiers in Cultural Psychology, 1.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00163

Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Schoeller, D. A., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control (HbA(1c)). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 243-251.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s12160-010-9238-9

Friedman, E.M., Williams, D.R., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2009). Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: the MIDUS study. Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 23(5), 684-692.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.01.002

Costanzo, E.S., Ryff, C.D., Singer, B.H. (2009). Psychosocial adjustment among cancer survivors: Findings from a national survey of health and well-being. Journal of Health Psychology, 28(2), 147-156.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/a0013221

Lachman, M.E., Rocke, C., Rosnick, C., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Realism and illusion in Americans' temporal views of their life satisfaction: Age differences in reconstructing the past and anticipating the future. Psychological Science, 19(9), 889-897.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02173.x

Gruenewald, T.L., Mroczek, D.K., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Diverse pathways to positive and negative affect in adulthood and later life: An integrative approach using recursive partitioning. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 330-343.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.330

Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 13-39.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s10902-006-9019-0

Tsenkova, V.K., Love, G.D., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Coping and positive affect predict longitudinal change in glycosylated hemoglobin. Health Psychology, 27(2, Suppl), S163-S171.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/0278-6133.27.2(Suppl.).S163

Friedman, E.M., Love, G.D., Davidson, R., Urry, H., Rosencranz, M., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status predicts subjective and objective sleep quality in aging women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 682-691.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31814ceada

Friedman, E.M., Hayney, M., Love, G.D., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Plasma interleukin-6 and soluble IL-6 receptors are associated with psychological well-being in aging women. Health Psychology, 26, 305-313.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/0278-6133.26.3.305

Tsenkova, V.K., Love, G.D., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status and psychological well-being predict cross-time change in glycosylated hemoglobin in older women without diabetes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(8), 777-784.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318157466f

Ryff, C.D., Love, G.D., Muller, D., Urry, H., Friedman, E.M., Davidson, R., & Singer, B. (2006). Psychological well-being and ill-being: do they have distinct or mirrored biological correlates? Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 75, 85-95.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000090892

Ahrens, C. J. C., & Ryff, C. D. (2006). Multiple roles and well-being: Sociodemographic and psychological moderators. Sex Roles, 55(11-12), 801-815.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s11199-006-9134-8

Friedman, E.M., Hayney, M.S., Love, G.D., Urry, H.L., Rosenkranz, M.A., Davidson, R.J., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2005). Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women. PNAS, 102, 18757-18762.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1073/pnas.0509281102

Singer, B.H., Friedman, E.M., Seeman, T.E., Fava, G.A., & Ryff, C.D. (2005). Protective environments and health status: cross-talk between human and animal studies. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, 113-118.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.08.020

Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., & Love, G.D. (2004). Positive health: connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London B (Online).
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1098/rstb.2004.1521

Kwan, C.M.L., Love, G.D., Ryff, C.D., & Essex, M.J. (2003). The role of self-enhancing evaluations in a successful life transition. Psychology and Aging, 18(1), 3-12.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037/0882-7974.18.1.3

Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B. (2003). The role of emotion on pathways to positive health. In R.J. Davidson, K.R. Scherer, & H.H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hayney, M.S., Love, G.D., Buck, J. M., Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., & Muller, D. (2003). The association between psychosocial factors and vaccine induced-cytokine production. Vaccine, 21, 2428-243.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00057-4

Kling, K.C., Ryff, C.D., Love, G., & Essex, M. (2003). Exploring the influence of personality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem across a significant life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 922-932.

Han, G., Lee, J., Ryff, C.D., Marks, N.F., Ok, S., & Cha, S. (2003). Health status and health behavior of middle-aged Korean men and women: Gender and age-group differences. Journal of Korean Home Economics Association, 4, 213-229.

Seeman, T.E., Singer, B.H., Ryff, C.D., Love, G.D., & Levy-Storms, L. (2002). Social relationships, gender, and allostatic load across two age cohorts. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 395-406.

Keyes, C.L.M., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C.D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007-1022.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.1007

Singer, B., & Ryff, C.D. (Eds.). (2001). New horizons in health: An integrative approach. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ryff, C.D., Kwan, C.M.L., & Singer, B. (2001). Personality and aging: Flourishing agendas and future challenges. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (5th ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.

Singer, B., & Ryff, C.D. (2001). Person-centered methods for understanding aging: The integration of numbers and narratives. In R.H. Binstock & L.K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (5th ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.

Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., Wing, E., & Love, G.D. (2001). Elective affinities and uninvited agonies: Mapping emotion with significant others onto health. In C.D. Ryff & B. Singer (Eds.), Emotion, social relationships and health. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B. (2000). Biopsychosocial challenges of the new millennium. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 170-177.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1159/000012390

Singer, B., & Ryff, C.D. (1999). Hierarchies of life histories and associated health risks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 96-115.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08108.x

Marmot, M.G., Fuhrer, R., Ettner, S.L., Marks, N.F., Bumpass, L.L., & Ryff, C.R. (1998). Contribution of psychosocial factors to socioeconomic differences in health. Milbank Quarterly, 76, 403-440.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/1468-0009.00097

Ryff, C.D., & Singer, B. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 1-28.
View publication via DOI: DOI:1207/s15327965pli0901_1

Singer, B., Ryff, C.D., Carr, D., & Magee, W.J. (1998). Life histories and mental health: A person-centered strategy. In A. Raftery (Ed.), Sociological methodology. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

Ryff, C.D., Singer, B., Love, G.D., & Essex, M.J. (1998). Resilience in adulthood and later life: Defining features and dynamic processes. In J. Lomranz (Ed.), Handbook of aging and mental health. New York: Plenum.

Ryff, C.D., Singer, B.H. (1998). The role of purpose in life and personal growth in positive human health. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 213-235). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Heidrich, S.M., & Ryff, C.D. (1993). The role of social comparison processes in the psychological adaptation of the elderly. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48, 127-P136.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/geronj/48.3.P127

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