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Dale Schoeller

Dale A. Schoeller

Ph.D., Indiana University
Professor Emeritus, Department of Nutritional Sciences

The Roles of Energy Metabolism in Weight Control and Aging

Obesity and low physical activity levels are endemic in the US. The problem is accentuated amongst those in their 6th and 7th decade of life as this is when excess body weight peaks in many individuals. I am involved in a number of research projects that are designed to better understand the causes of human obesity, age-related weight gain and obesity treatment.

Included amongst our research projects are a series of clinical studies investigating the role of physical activity on weight control. Currently, we are collaborating with an international group of investigators to assemble the first international data base on human energy budgets and to use this for investigations into the differences between the countries at different stages of economic development to better understand the global spread of obesity. A second project using this data base will be aimed at establishing an updated and more scientifically rigorous means of predicting energy requirement in aging.

The doubly labeled water method and body composition analysis are among the tools we use in these research projects. We were the first to apply the doubly labeled water method in humans. This technique allows us to measure how many calories an individual burns over a period of a week or two based on the kinetics of two stable isotope labels in urinary water. Using the doubly labeled water method combined with measures of resting metabolic rate, we are able to objectively measure energy expenditure of physical activity in free-living subjects. We are using this to study the effect of physical activity on weight control and body composition.

We are working with other investigators to develop a better method to estimate functional muscle mass changes during aging. The most common methods used today measure muscle volume, but have found that bioelectrical methods can distinguish between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of a muscle group and this strengthens correlations with muscle function. We are continuing these investigations in an attempt to provide a rapid and accurate measure of functional muscle mass with the goal of providing a better definition of sarcopenia as well as simple measures that used by clinicians in office and hospital settings to assess response to interventions.

Representative Publications
Yamada, Y., Kemnitz, J.W., Weindruch, R., Anderson, R.M., Schoeller, D.A., & Colman, R.J. (2018). Caloric restriction and healthy life span: Frail phenotype of nonhuman primates in the Wisconsin national primate research center caloric restriction study. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 73(3), 273-278.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glx059

Matthews, C.E., Kozey Keadle, S., Moore, S.C., Schoeller, D.S., Carroll, R.J., Troiano, R.P., & Sampson, J.N. (2018). Measurement of active and sedentary behavior in context of large epidemiologic studies. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 50(2), 266-276.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001428.

Lampe, J. W., Huang, Y., Neuhouser, M. L., Tinker, L. F., Song, X., Schoeller, D. A., Kim, S., Raftery, D., Di, C., Zheng, C., Schwarz, Y., Van Horn, L., Thomson, C. A., Mossavar-Rahmani, Y., Beresford, S. A., & Prentice, R. L. (2017). Dietary biomarker evaluation in a controlled feeding study in women from the women's health initiative cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105, 466-475.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/ajcn.116.144840

Kudsk, K. A., Munoz-Del-Rio, A., Busch, R. A., Kight, C. E., & Schoeller, D. A. (2017). Stratification of fat-free mass index percentiles for body composition based on national health and nutrition examination survey III bioelectric impedance data. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 41(2), 249-257.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1177/0148607115592672

Yamada, Y., Buehring, B., Krueger, D., Anderson, R.M., Schoeller, D.A., & Binkley, N. (2017). Electrical properties assessed by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as biomarkers of age-related loss of skeletal muscle quantity and quality. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 72(9), 1180-1186.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glw225

Whigham, L. D., Butz, D. E., Johnson, L. K., Schoeller, D. A., Abbott, D. H., Porter, W. P., & Cook, M. E. (2014). Breath carbon stable isotope ratios identify changes in energy balance and substrate utilization in humans. International Journal of Obesity, 38, 1248-1250.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/ijo.2014.7

Colbert, L. H., Matthews, C. E., Schoeller, D. A., Havighurst, T. C., & Kim, K. (2014). Intensity of physical activity in the energy expenditure of older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22(4) 571-7.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1123/japa.2012-0257

Whigham, L.D., Butz, D.E., Dashti, H., Tonelli, M., Johnson, L.K., Cook, M.E., Porter, W.P., Eghbalnia, H.R., Markley, J.L., Lindheim, S.R., Schoeller, D.A., Abbott, D.H., & Assadi-Porter, F.M. (2014). Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Current Metabolomics, 1(4), 269-278.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.2174/2213235X01666131203230512

Thomas, D.M., Martin, C.K., Redman, L.M., Heymsfield, S.B., Lettieri, S., Levine, J.A., Bouchard, C., & Schoeller, D.A. (2014). Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: A mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(4), 787-95.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.079822

Schoeller, D.A. (2014). The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight. Physiology & Behavior, 134, 66-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.03.018

Whigham, L. D., Schoeller, D. A., Johnson, L. K., & Atkinson, R. L. (2013). Effect of clothing weight on body weight. International Journal of Obesity, 37, 160-161.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/ijo.2012.20

Yamada, Y., Colman, R. J., Kemnitz, J. W., Baum, S. T., Anderson, R. M., Weindruch, R., & Schoeller, D. A. (2013). Long-term calorie restriction decreases metabolic cost of movement and prevents decrease of physical activity during aging in rhesus monkeys. Experimental Gerontology, 48(11), 1226-1235.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2013.08.002

Yamada, Y., Blanc, S., Nishida, Y., Nishijima, K., Ebine, N., Shriver, T., & Schoeller, D. A. (2013). Validity of doubly labeled water in obese subjects: Questioning the validity of any technique requires an indisputable accuracy of the reference method. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 305(9), E1178-1180.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00355.2013

Gillingham, M. B., Harding, C. O., Schoeller, D. A., Matern, D., & Purnell, J. Q. (2013). Altered body composition and energy expenditure but normal glucose tolerance among humans with a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 305(10), E1299-E1308.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00225.2013

Bergouignan, A., Momken, I., Lefai, E., Antoun, E., Schoeller, D. A., Platat, C., . . . Blanc, S. (2013). Activity energy expenditure is a major determinant of dietary fat oxidation and trafficking, but the deleterious effect of detraining is more marked than the beneficial effect of training at current recommendations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(3), 648-658.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.057075

Cooper, J. A., Manini, T. M., Paton, C. M., Yamada, Y., Everhart, J. E., Cummings, S., . . . Schoeller, D. A. (2013). Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 73.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-73

Schoeller, D. A. (2013). A novel carbon isotope biomarker for dietary sugar. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(6), 763-765.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/jn.113.177345

Hall, K.D., Heymsfield, S.B., Kemnitz, J.W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D.A., & Speakman, J.R. (2012). Energy balance and its components: Implications for body weight regulation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(4), 989-994.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/AJCN.112.036350

Bradley, D. P., Kulstad, R., Racine, N., Shenker, Y., Meredith, M., & Schoeller, D. A. (2012). Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(5), 893-899.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1139/h2012-068

Cook, C. M., Subar, A. F., Troiano, R. P., & Schoeller, D. A. (2012). Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (open study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(3), 726-731.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.023036

Hawkins, K. R. ... Schoeller, D. A., & Cooper, J. A. (2012). Effect of exercise on the diurnal variation in energy substrate use during a high-fat diet. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(11), 3775-3785.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s00421-012-2360-6

Schoeller, D. A., Alon, A., Manekas, D., Mixson, L. A., Lasseter, K. C., Noonan, G. P., ... Nunes, I. (2012). Segmental bioimpedance for measuring amlodipine-induced pedal edema: A placebo-controlled study. Clinical Therapeutics, 34(3), 580-592.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2012.01.018

Colbert, L.H., Matthews, C.E., Havighurst, T.C., Kim, K., & Schoeller, D.A. (2011). Comparative validity of physical activity measures in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(5), 867-76.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181fc7162

Colbert, L. H., & Schoeller, D. A. (2011). Expending our physical activity (measurement) budget wisely. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(2), 606-607.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00089.2011

Cook, C. M., & Schoeller, D. A. (2011). Physical activity and weight control: Conflicting findings. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(5), 419-424.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328349b9ff

Cooper, J. A., Nguyen, D. D., Ruby, B. C., & Schoeller, D. A. (2011). Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(12), 2359-2367.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822430ed

Luke, A., Bovet, P., Forrester, T. E., Lambert, E. V., Plange-Rhule, J., Schoeller, D. A., . . . Steyn, N. P. (2011). Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: A longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. BMC Public Health, 11, 927.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-927

Mackey, D. C., Manini, T. M., Schoeller, D. A., Koster, A., Glynn, N. W., Goodpaster, B. H., . . . Cummings, S. R. (2011). Validation of an armband to measure daily energy expenditure in older adults. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(10), 1108-1113.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr101

Manini, T. M., Patel, K. V., Bauer, D. C., Ziv, E., Schoeller, D. A., Mackey, D. C., . . . Harris, T. B. (2011). European ancestry and resting metabolic rate in older African Americans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(6), 663-667.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2011.22

Prentice, R. L., Mossavar-Rahmani, Y., Huang, Y., Van Horn, L., Beresford, S. A., Caan, B., Tinker, L., Schoeller, D.. . . Neuhouser, M. L. (2011). Evaluation and comparison of food records, recalls, and frequencies for energy and protein assessment by using recovery biomarkers. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(5), 591-603.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwr140

Stice, E., Durant, S., Burger, K. S., & Schoeller, D. A. (2011). Weight suppression and risk of future increases in body mass: Effects of suppressed resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(1), 7-11.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/ajcn.110.010025

Yamada, Y., Schoeller, D.A., Nakamura, E., Morimoto, T., Kimura, M., & Oda, S. (2010). Extracellular water may mask actual muscle atrophy during aging. The Journals of Gerontology, 65(5), 510-516.
Click here to download this publication.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/glq001

Tsenkova, V. K., Carr, D., Schoeller, D. A., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control (HbA(1c)). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 243-251.
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View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1007/s12160-010-9238-9

Schoeller, D.A. (2009). The energy balance equation: Looking back and looking forward are two very different views. Nutrition Review, 67(5), 249-254.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00197.x

Schoeller, D.A., Watras, A.C., & Whigham, L.D. (2009). A meta-analysis of the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on fat-free mass in humans. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 34(5), 975-978.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1139/H09-080

Manini, T.M., Everhart, J.E., Anton, S.D., Schoeller, D.A., Cummings, S.R., Mackey, D.C., Delmonico, M.J., Bauer, D.C., Simonsick, E.M., Colbert, L.H., Visser, M., Tylavsky, F., Newman, A.B., & Harris, T. (2009). Activity energy expenditure and change in body composition in late life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(5), 1336-1342.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/​ajcn.2009.27659

Cooper, J.A., Polonsky, K.S., & Schoeller, D.A. (2009). Serum leptin levels in obese males during over- and underfeeding. Obesity, 12, 2149-2154.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/oby.2009.149

Manini, T.M., Everhart, J.E., Patel, K.V., Schoeller, D.A., Cummings, S., Mackey, D.C., Bauer, D.C., Simonsick, E.M., Colbert, L.H., Visser, M., Tylavsky, F., Newman, A.B., Harris, T.B., & Aging and Body Composition Study. (2009). Activity energy expenditure and mobility limitation in older adults: Differential associations by sex. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(12), 1507-1516.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp069

Swinburn, B.A., Sacks, G., Lo, S.K., Westerterp, K.R., Rush, E.C., Rosenbaum, M., Luke, A., Schoeller, D.A., DeLany, J.P., Butte, N.F., & Ravussin, E. (2009). Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(6), 1723-1728.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.3945/​ajcn.2008.27061

Teegarden, D., White, K., Lyle, R.M., Zemel, M.B., Van Loan, M., Matkovic, V., Craig, B., & Schoeller, D.A. (2008). Calcium and dairy product modulation of lipid utilization and energy expenditure. Obesity, 16, 1566-72.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/oby.2008.232

Toose, J.A., Schoeller, D.A., Subar, A.F., Kipnis, V., Schatzkin, A., & Troiano, R.P. (2007). Total daily energy expenditure among middle-aged men and women: the OPEN Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 86, 382-387.

Raman, A., Ramsey, J.J., Kemnitz, J.W., Baum, S.T., Newton, W., Coleman, R.J., Weindruch, R., Beasley, M.T., & Schoeller, D.A. (2007). Influences of calorie restriction and age on energy expenditure in the rhesus monkeys. Am. J. Physiol., 292, E101-6.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.​1152/​ajpendo.​00127.​2006

Raman, A., Baum, S.T., Colman, R.J., Kemnitz, J.W., Weindruch, R., & Schoeller, D.A. (2007). Metabolizable energy intake during long-term calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys. Exp. Gerontol., 42(10), 988-94.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2007.05.008

Manini, T.M., Everhart, J.E., Patel, K.V., Schoeller, D.A., Colbert, L.H., Visser, M., Tylavsky, F., Bauer, D.C., Goodpaster, B.H., & Harris, T.B. (2006). Daily activity energy expenditure and mortality among older adults. JAMA, 296, 171-9.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1001/jama.296.2.171

Schoeller, D.A., & Buchholz, A. (2005). Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter? J. Am. Dietetic Assc., 105, S24-S28.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.025

Votruba, S.B., Atkinson, R.L., & Schoeller, D.A. (2005). Sustained increase in dietary oleic acid oxidation following morning exercise. Intl. J. Obesity, 29, 101-107.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802779

Schoeller, D.A., Tylavsky, F.A., Baer, D.J., Chumlea, W.C., Earthman, C.P., Fuerst, T., et al. (2005). QDR 4500A dual X-ray absorptiometer underestimates fat mass in comparison with criterion methods in adults Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 81, 1018-1025.

Raman, A., Colman, R.J., Cheng, Y., Kemnitz, J.W., Baum, S.T., Weindruch, R., & Schoeller, D.A. (2005). Reference body composition in adult rhesus monkeys: Glucoregulatory and anthropometric indices. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci., 60(12), 1518-24.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1093/gerona/60.12.1518

Blanc, S., Colman, R., Kemnitz, J., Weindruch, R., Baum, S., Ramsey, J., & Schoeller, D. (2005). Assessment of nutritional status in rhesus monkeys: comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and stable isotope dilution. J. Med. Primatol., 34(3), 130-8.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0684.2005.00106.x

Blanc, S., Schoeller, D., Bauer, D., Danielson, M.E., Tylavsky, F., Simonsick, E.M., et al. (2004). Energy requirements in the eighth decade of life. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 303-310.

Blanc, S., Schoeller, D., Kemnitz, J., Weindruch, R., Colman, R., Newton, W., Wink, K., Baum, S., & Ramsey, J. (2003). Energy expenditure of rhesus monkeys subjected to 11 years of dietary restriction. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 88, 16-23.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/jc.2002-020405

Schoeller, D.A., & Jefford G. (2002). Determinants of the energy costs of light activities: Inferences for interpreting doubly labeled water data. Intl. J. Obesity, 26, 97-101.

Luke, A., Duraza-Arvizu, R.A., Rotimi, C.N., Iams, H., Schoeller, D.A., Adeyemo, A.A., Forrester, T.E., Wilks, R., & Cooper, R.S. (2002). Activity energy expenditure and adipositiy among black adults in Nigeria and the United States. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 1045-1050.

Blanc, S., Colligan, A.S., Trabulsi, J., Everhart, J., Bauer, D., Harris, T., & Schoeller, D.A. (2002). Influence of delayed isotopic equilibration on the accuracy of doubly labeled water in the elderly. J. Appl. Physiol., 92, 1036-1044.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.​1152/​japplphysiol.​00743.​2001

Votruba, S.B., Blanc, S., & Schoeller, D.A. (2002). Pattern and cost of weight gain in previously obese women. Am. J. Physiol., 282, E923-E930.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.​1152/​ajpendo.​00265.​2001

Trabulsi, J., & Schoeller, D.A. (2001). Evaluation of dietary assessment instruments against doubly labeled water, a biomarker of habitual energy intake. Am. J. Physiol., 281, E891-899.

Votruba, S.B., Horvitz, M.A., & Schoeller, D.A. (2000). The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity. Nutr., 16, 179-188.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00264-6

Guo, Z.K., Cella, L., Baum, C., Ravussin, E., & Schoeller, D.A. (2000). De Novo lipogenesis in adopose tissue of lean and obese women: Application of deuterated water and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Int. J. Obesity, 24, 932-937.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801256

Chin-Chance, C., Polonsky, K.S., & Schoeller, D.A. (2000). 24-h leptin levels respond to short-term energy balance and predict subsequent intake. J. Clin. Endo. Metab., 85, 2685-2691.
View publication via DOI: DOI:10.1210/jc.85.8.2685

Gudivaka, R., Kushner, R., & Schoeller, D.A. (1999). Comparison and validation of single and multiple frequency impedance analysis for the measurement of body water compartmentalization. J. Appl. Physiol., 87, 1087-1096.

Schoeller, D.A. (1998). Balancing energy expenditure and body weight. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 68, 956S-961S.

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